Energy-Efficient Management Of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Wagenknecht, Gerald (2013). Energy-Efficient Management Of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (Submitted). (Dissertation, Universität Bern, Philosophisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät, Institut für Informatik und angewandte Mathematik)

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Various applications for the purposes of event detection, localization, and monitoring can benefit from the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks are generally easy to deploy, with flexible topology and can support diversity of tasks thanks to the large variety of sensors that can be attached to the wireless sensor nodes. To guarantee the efficient operation of such a heterogeneous wireless sensor networks during its lifetime an appropriate management is necessary. Typically, there are three management tasks, namely monitoring, (re) configuration, and code updating. On the one hand, status information, such as battery state and node connectivity, of both the wireless sensor network and the sensor nodes has to be monitored. And on the other hand, sensor nodes have to be (re)configured, e.g., setting the sensing interval. Most importantly, new applications have to be deployed as well as bug fixes have to be applied during the network lifetime. All management tasks have to be performed in a reliable, time- and energy-efficient manner. The ability to disseminate data from one sender to multiple receivers in a reliable, time- and energy-efficient manner is critical for the execution of the management tasks, especially for code updating. Using multicast communication in wireless sensor networks is an efficient way to handle such traffic pattern. Due to the nature of code updates a multicast protocol has to support bulky traffic and endto-end reliability. Further, the limited resources of wireless sensor nodes demand an energy-efficient operation of the multicast protocol. Current data dissemination schemes do not fulfil all of the above requirements. In order to close the gap, we designed the Sensor Node Overlay Multicast (SNOMC) protocol such that to support a reliable, time-efficient and energy-efficient dissemination of data from one sender node to multiple receivers. In contrast to other multicast transport protocols, which do not support reliability mechanisms, SNOMC supports end-to-end reliability using a NACK-based reliability mechanism. The mechanism is simple and easy to implement and can significantly reduce the number of transmissions. It is complemented by a data acknowledgement after successful reception of all data fragments by the receiver nodes. In SNOMC three different caching strategies are integrated for an efficient handling of necessary retransmissions, namely, caching on each intermediate node, caching on branching nodes, or caching only on the sender node. Moreover, an option was included to pro-actively request missing fragments. SNOMC was evaluated both in the OMNeT++ simulator and in our in-house real-world testbed and compared to a number of common data dissemination protocols, such as Flooding, MPR, TinyCubus, PSFQ, and both UDP and TCP. The results showed that SNOMC outperforms the selected protocols in terms of transmission time, number of transmitted packets, and energy-consumption. Moreover, we showed that SNOMC performs well with different underlying MAC protocols, which support different levels of reliability and energy-efficiency. Thus, SNOMC can offer a robust, high-performing solution for the efficient distribution of code updates and management information in a wireless sensor network. To address the three management tasks, in this thesis we developed the Management Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks (MARWIS). MARWIS is specifically designed for the management of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. A distinguished feature of its design is the use of wireless mesh nodes as backbone, which enables diverse communication platforms and offloading functionality from the sensor nodes to the mesh nodes. This hierarchical architecture allows for efficient operation of the management tasks, due to the organisation of the sensor nodes into small sub-networks each managed by a mesh node. Furthermore, we developed a intuitive -based graphical user interface, which allows non-expert users to easily perform management tasks in the network. In contrast to other management frameworks, such as Mate, MANNA, TinyCubus, or code dissemination protocols, such as Impala, Trickle, and Deluge, MARWIS offers an integrated solution monitoring, configuration and code updating of sensor nodes. Integration of SNOMC into MARWIS further increases performance efficiency of the management tasks. To our knowledge, our approach is the first one, which offers a combination of a management architecture with an efficient overlay multicast transport protocol. This combination of SNOMC and MARWIS supports reliably, time- and energy-efficient operation of a heterogeneous wireless sensor network.

Item Type: Thesis (Dissertation)
Division/Institute: 08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Computer Science (INF) > Communication and Distributed Systems (CDS)
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Computer Science (INF)
UniBE Contributor: Wagenknecht, Gerald and Braun, Torsten
Subjects: 000 Computer science, knowledge & systems
500 Science > 510 Mathematics
Language: English
Submitter: Jonnahtan Eduardo Saltarin de Arco
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2014 11:22
Last Modified: 26 Apr 2017 02:28
BORIS DOI: 10.7892/boris.44145

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