6- and 8-year-olds' performance evaluations: do they differ between self and unknown others?

Destan, Nesrin; Spiess, Manuela A.; de Bruin, Anique; van Loon, Mariëtte; Roebers, Claudia M. (2017). 6- and 8-year-olds' performance evaluations: do they differ between self and unknown others? Metacognition and learning, 12(3), pp. 315-336. Springer 10.1007/s11409-017-9170-5

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Abstract monitor and evaluate their own and a virtual peer’s performance in a paired-associate learning task. Participants provided confidence judgments (CJs) for their own responses and performancebased judgments (judgments provided after receiving feedback on their performance) for both their own and a virtual peer’s responses. For the performance-based judgments, children were confronted with their own or the peer’s answer as well as the correct answer. Additionally, participants were asked to credit their own and the peer’s correct and incorrect answers while facing feedback. Results indicate an age-related progression in metacognitive monitoring skills, with second graders differentiating more strongly in their confidence judgments between correct and incorrect responses compared to kindergarteners. Regarding performance-based judgments, children of both age groups provided higher judgments for correctly compared to incorrectly recognized items as well as for their own responses in comparison to the responses of the unknown child. Similarly, when crediting, participants of both age groups gave more credits for correct recognition than for incorrect recognition and for their own responses than for the peer’s responses. The significant interaction between age group and recognition accuracy for the crediting shows that second graders gave more credits for correctly recognized items while kindergarteners gave more credits for incorrect answers than the older children – primarily for their own incorrect answers. In conclusion, the study provides new insights into 6- and 8-yearolds’ evaluations of their own and an unknown child’s performance in a paired-associate learning task by showing that children of both age groups generally judged and credited responses in their own favor. These results add to our understanding of biases in children’s performance evaluations, including metacognitive judgments and judgments provided after receiving feedback.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Developmental Psychology

Graduate School:

Swiss Graduate School for Cognition, Learning and Memory (SGS-CLM)

UniBE Contributor:

Destan, Nesrin; Spiess, Manuela; van Loon, Mariëtte Henrica and Roebers, Claudia


100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology








Michelle Nina Maurer

Date Deposited:

31 Jul 2017 09:20

Last Modified:

08 Oct 2019 07:53

Publisher DOI:






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