Differentiation in morphology and flowering phenology between two Campanula thyrsoides L. subspecies

Scheepens, J. F.; Kuss, P.; Stöcklin, J. (2011). Differentiation in morphology and flowering phenology between two Campanula thyrsoides L. subspecies. Alpine Botany, 121(1), pp. 34-47. Basel: Springer 10.1007/s00035-011-0087-3

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Subspecies are usually characterised by sets of morphological discontinuities. By means of common garden experiments, we investigated genetic differentiation in morphological and phenological traits in two geographically disjunct subspecies of Campanula thyrsoides L., i.e. subsp. thyrsoides (=C.* thyrsoides) occurring in the European Alps and Jura Mountains, and subsp. carniolica (=C.* carniolica) occurring in the Southeastern Alps and the Dinaric Arc. Nine out of 16 investigated traits were significantly different between C.* thyrsoides and C.* carniolica. For C.* carniolica inflorescence length was 1.4×, and above-ground biomass 2.7× higher, while flower density was significantly lower. Campanula* carniolica also showed delayed flowering and flower development from bottom to top as compared to C.* thyrsoides which flowered from top to bottom. The inflorescence growth was indeterminate and flowering took several weeks in C.* carniolica, whereas C.* thyrsoides showed determinate flowering, rapidly opening all flowers within a few days. This differentiation in flowering phenology is likely to be adaptive. The submediterranean climate favours indeterminate flowering in C.* carniolica, allowing ongoing growth of the inflorescence throughout the long summer until environmental conditions worsen, whereas determinate and early flowering in C.* thyrsoides is favourable in the short growing season in the high Alps where seed production must be secured before temperature drops. Glacial survival in refugia with different climates (alpine vs. submediterranean) may have caused this regional differentiation.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS)
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS) > Plant Ecology

UniBE Contributor:

Kuss, Patrick

Subjects:

500 Science > 580 Plants (Botany)

ISSN:

1664-2201

Publisher:

Springer

Language:

English

Submitter:

Peter Alfred von Ballmoos-Haas

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:27

Last Modified:

29 Nov 2016 15:21

Publisher DOI:

10.1007/s00035-011-0087-3

Web of Science ID:

000289414200005

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Campanula thyrsoides subsp. carniolica; Common garden; Determinate flowering; European Alps; Glacial history

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.10121

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/10121 (FactScience: 215963)

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