Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis.

Stankovic, Zoran (2016). Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis. World journal of gastroenterology, 22(1), pp. 89-102. WJG Press 10.3748/wjg.v22.i1.89

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Since its introduction in the 1970's, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a standard imaging modality. With its broad and standardized application, it is firmly established in the clinical routine and an essential element in cardiovascular and abdominal imaging. In addition to sonography and computer tomography, MRI is a valuable tool for diagnosing cardiovascular and abdominal diseases, for determining disease severity, and for assessing therapeutic success. MRI techniques have improved over the last few decades, revealing not just morphologic information, but functional information about perfusion, diffusion and hemodynamics as well. Four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a time-resolved phase contrast-MRI with three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage and velocity encoding along all three flow directions has been used to comprehensively assess complex cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the body. The technique enables visualization of 3D blood flow patterns and retrospective quantification of blood flow parameters in a region of interest. Over the last few years, 4D flow MRI has been increasingly performed in the abdominal region. By applying different acceleration techniques, taking 4D flow MRI measurements has dropped to a reasonable scanning time of 8 to 12 min. These new developments have encouraged a growing number of patient studies in the literature validating the technique's potential for enhanced evaluation of blood flow parameters within the liver's complex vascular system. The purpose of this review article is to broaden our understanding of 4D flow MRI for the assessment of liver hemodynamics by providing insights into acquisition, data analysis, visualization and quantification. Furthermore, in this article we highlight its development, focussing on the clinical application of the technique.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Stankovic, Zoran


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




WJG Press




Nicole Rösch

Date Deposited:

04 Jun 2018 11:10

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 06:06

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Blood flow Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging Hemodynamics Imaging technique Liver cirrhosis Phase contrast-magnetic resonance imaging Quantification Splanchnic system TIPS Visualization




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