Commonly prescribed antiretroviral therapy regimens and incidence of AIDS-defining neurological conditions.

Caniglia, Ellen C; Phillips, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud; Sabin, Caroline A; Winston, Alan; Logan, Roger; Gill, John; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Barger, Diana; Lodi, Sara; Moreno, Santiago; Arribas, José Ramón; Pacheco, Antonio; Cardoso, Sandra W; Chrysos, George; Gogos, Charalabos; Abgrall, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Remonie; ... (2018). Commonly prescribed antiretroviral therapy regimens and incidence of AIDS-defining neurological conditions. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes JAIDS, 77(1), pp. 102-109. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001562

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BACKGROUND

The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown.

SETTING

Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration.

METHODS

Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest. We evaluated four neuroAIDS conditions: HIV dementia and the opportunistic infections toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. For each outcome, we estimated hazard ratios for atazanavir, lopinavir, and darunavir compared with efavirenz via a pooled logistic model. Our models were adjusted for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics.

RESULTS

26,172 individuals initiated efavirenz, 5,858 initiated atazanavir, 8,479 initiated lopinavir, and 4,799 initiated darunavir. Compared with efavirenz, the adjusted HIV dementia hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 1.72 (1.00, 2.96) for atazanavir, 2.21 (1.38, 3.54) for lopinavir, and 1.41 (0.61, 3.24) for darunavir. The respective hazard ratios (95% CIs) for the combined endpoint were 1.18 (0.74, 1.88) for atazanavir, 1.61 (1.14, 2.27) for lopinavir, and 1.36 (0.74, 2.48) for darunavir. The results varied in subsets defined by calendar year, NRTI backbone, and age.

CONCLUSION

Our results are consistent with an increased risk of neuroAIDS after initiating lopinavir compared with efavirenz, but temporal changes in prescribing trends and confounding by indication could explain our findings.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology

UniBE Contributor:

Hauser, Christoph

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0894-9255

Publisher:

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Language:

English

Submitter:

Annelies Luginbühl

Date Deposited:

22 Nov 2017 14:52

Last Modified:

13 Oct 2020 02:12

Publisher DOI:

10.1097/QAI.0000000000001562

PubMed ID:

28991888

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.106332

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/106332

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