Holocene: Holocene Environments in Europe

Day, Petra; Tinner, Willy (2012). Holocene: Holocene Environments in Europe. In: Silberman, Neil Asher (ed.) The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.). Oxford Reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press 10.1093/acref/9780199735785.001.0001

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The environment of Europe changed dramatically during the Holocene due to both natural and human factors, the relative importance of which varied through time. At the end of the last Ice Age (ca. 17,000 BC), a large part of northern Europe was covered by ice sheets, while much of the area farther south experienced cold conditions and supported open herb-dominated vegetation (e.g., Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae) or open woodlands of birch (Betula) and pine (Pinus). Pockets of temperate forests with oak (Quercus), linden or lime (Tilia), elm (Ulmus), maple (Acer), ash (Fraxinus), and fir (Abies) were restricted to southern Europe.

Item Type:

Book Section (Encyclopedia Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS) > Palaeoecology
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS)

UniBE Contributor:

Tinner, Willy

Subjects:

500 Science > 580 Plants (Botany)

ISBN:

978-0-19-973921-9

Series:

Oxford Reference

Publisher:

Oxford University Press

Language:

English

Submitter:

Peter Alfred von Ballmoos-Haas

Date Deposited:

30 Jan 2018 09:00

Last Modified:

30 Jan 2018 09:00

Publisher DOI:

10.1093/acref/9780199735785.001.0001

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Agriculture; elm decline; Europe; megafaunal extinction; paleoenvironmental reconstruction; Plestocene; Somerset levels; Star Carr.

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.106536

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/106536

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