Effects of sedimentation on rift segment evolution and rift interaction in orthogonal and oblique extensional settings: Insights from analogue models analysed with 4D X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation techniques

Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Adam, Jürgen (2018). Effects of sedimentation on rift segment evolution and rift interaction in orthogonal and oblique extensional settings: Insights from analogue models analysed with 4D X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation techniques. Global and planetary change, 171, pp. 110-133. Elsevier Science 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2017.11.002

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During the early evolution of rift systems, individual rift segments often develop along pre-existing crustal weaknesses that are frequently non-continuous and laterally offset. As extension progresses, these initial rift segments establish linkage in order to develop a continuous rift system that might eventually lead to continental break-up. Previous analogue and numerical modelling efforts have demonstrated that rift interaction structures are influenced by structural inheritances, detachment layers, magma bodies, rate and direction of extension, as well as the distance between rift segments. Yet to date, the effects of syn-tectonic sediments have been largely ignored or only modelled in 2D. In this study we therefore assess the influence of sedimentation on rift segment and rift interaction zone evolution in orthogonal and oblique extensional settings, by means of 3D brittle-ductile analogue models, analysed with 4D X-ray computed tomography (XRCT or CT) methods and digital volume correlation (DVC) techniques. Our models show that syn-rift sedimentation does not significantly influence the initial large-scale evolution of rift segments and rift interaction zones. Nevertheless, syn-rift sedimentation can strongly affect rift-internal structures: sedimentary loading reinforces the rift wedge, decreasing rift wedge faulting and increases sub- sidence within the rift basin. These effects are strongest in areas where most accommodation space is available, that is, along the main rift segments. In contrast, rift segments that undergo high degrees of oblique extension develop less accommodation space and are therefore less influenced by sedimentary loading. Rift interaction structures are least affected by sediment influx, as they experience relatively low amounts of subsidence so that little accommodation space is available. Our conclusions are valid for the early stages of rift development, when a high sediment influx could delay continental break-up, as other processes are likely to become dominant during later stages of continental extension. Finally, state-of-the-art DVC analysis of CT data proves to be a powerful tool to extract and fully quantify 3D internal model deformation in great detail and could be useful for comparing and calibrating analogue and numerical models.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geological Sciences
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geological Sciences > Tectonics

UniBE Contributor:

Zwaan, Frank and Schreurs, Guido

Subjects:

500 Science > 550 Earth sciences & geology

ISSN:

0921-8181

Publisher:

Elsevier Science

Funders:

[42] Schweizerischer Nationalfonds
[UNSPECIFIED] Universität Bern

Language:

English

Submitter:

Frank Zwaan

Date Deposited:

17 Jan 2018 15:41

Last Modified:

14 Nov 2019 01:25

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/j.gloplacha.2017.11.002

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.107652

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/107652

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