Intended Near-Total Removal of Koos Grade IV Vestibular Schwannomas: Reconsidering the Treatment Paradigm.

Zumofen, Daniel Walter; Guffi, Tommaso; Epple, Christian; Westermann, Birgit; Krähenbühl, Anna Katharina; Zabka, Susanne; Taub, Ethan; Bodmer, Daniel; Mariani, Luigi (2018). Intended Near-Total Removal of Koos Grade IV Vestibular Schwannomas: Reconsidering the Treatment Paradigm. Neurosurgery, 82(2), pp. 202-210. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1093/neuros/nyx143

[img] Text
nyx143.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to registered users only
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (464kB) | Request a copy


The goals of treating Koos grade IV vestibular schwannomas are to relieve brainstem compression, preserve or restore neurological function, and achieve long-term tumor control while minimizing tumor- and treatment-related morbidity.


To propose a treatment paradigm involving the intentional near-total removal of Koos grade IV vestibular schwannomas, in which a small amount of residual tumor is not dissected off the cisternal portion of the facial nerve. Patients are then followed by a wait-and-scan approach. Any subsequent volumetric progression of the residual tumor is treated with radiosurgery.


This is a case series of 44 consecutive unselected patients who underwent intended near-total resection of a Koos grade IV vestibular schwannoma through a retrosigmoid approach from January 2009 to December 2015. Pre- and postoperative volumetric analyses were performed on routine magnetic resonance imaging sequences (constructive interference in steady state and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequence).


The mean preoperative tumor volume was 10.9 cm 3 . The mean extent of resection was 89%. At the last clinical follow-up, facial nerve function was good [House and Brackmann (HB) I-II] in 89%, fair (HB III) in 9%, and poor (HB IV-VI) in 2% of the patients. At the last radiological follow-up, the residual tumor had become smaller or remained the same size in 84% of patients. Volumetric progression was negatively correlated with the original extent of resection and positively correlated with postoperative residual tumor volume ( P = .01, P < .001, respectively).


Intended near-total removal results in excellent preservation of facial nerve function and has a low recurrence rate. Any progressive residual tumor may be treated by radiosurgery.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurosurgery

UniBE Contributor:

Krähenbühl, Anna Katharina


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Lippincott Williams & Wilkins




Nicole Söll

Date Deposited:

09 Jan 2018 09:49

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:08

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Facial nerve outcome Facial nerve preservation surgery Intended near-total resection Koos grade IV Vestibular schwannoma




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback