Developmental progression in performance evaluations: Effects of children's cue-utilization and self-protection

van Loon, Mariëtte; Destan, Nesrin; Spiess, Manuela A.; de Bruin, Anique; Roebers, Claudia M. (2017). Developmental progression in performance evaluations: Effects of children's cue-utilization and self-protection. Learning and instruction, 51, pp. 47-60. Elsevier 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.11.011

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To effectively self-regulate learning, children need to self-evaluate whether they meet learning goals. Unfortunately, self-evaluations are often inaccurate, typically, children are overconfident. We investigated two explanations for developmental progression in self-evaluations related to children's (48 5/6-year-olds and 53 7/8-year-olds) interpretations of performance: Improved reliance on item difficulty, and reduced sensitivity to self-protection biases. Self-evaluations were more accurate for 7/8-year-olds than for 5/6-year-olds. There was no developmental increase in reliance on item difficulty; even 5/6-year-olds made adaptive use of this cue. Both age groups were overconfident for incorrect responses, but were able to use performance feedback to improve confidence judgments. However, when self-rewarding, 5/6-year-olds were less likely to take negative performance feedback into account than 7/8-year-olds. The 5/6-year-olds were able to base confidence judgments on performance feedback, but did not use feed-back to the same extent when self-rewarding. This may indicate that self-protective biases are an important cause of overconfidence in children.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Developmental Psychology

Graduate School:

Swiss Graduate School for Cognition, Learning and Memory (SGS-CLM)

UniBE Contributor:

van Loon, Mariëtte Henrica; Destan, Nesrin; Spiess, Manuela and Roebers, Claudia


100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology








Jennifer Ruth Sprenger

Date Deposited:

24 Apr 2018 10:44

Last Modified:

24 Apr 2018 10:44

Publisher DOI:





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