Unraveling the dynamics of magmatic CO2 degassing at Mammoth Mountain, California

Peiffer, Loïc; Wanner, Christoph; Lewicki, Jennifer L. (2018). Unraveling the dynamics of magmatic CO2 degassing at Mammoth Mountain, California. Earth and planetary science letters, 484, pp. 318-328. Elsevier 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.12.038

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The accumulation of magmatic CO2beneath low-permeability barriers may lead to the formation of CO2-rich gas reservoirs within volcanic systems. Such accumulation is often evidenced by high surface CO2emissions that fluctuate over time. The temporal variability in surface degassing is believed in part to reflect a complex interplay between deep magmatic degassing and the permeability of degassing pathways. A better understanding of the dynamics of CO2degassing is required to improve monitoring and hazards mitigation in these systems. Owing to the availability of long-term records of CO2emissions rates and seismicity, Mammoth Mountain in California constitutes an ideal site towards such predictive understanding. Mammoth Mountain is characterized by intense soil CO2degassing (up to ∼1000 td−1) and tree kill areas that resulted from leakage of CO2from a CO2-rich gas reservoir located in the upper ∼4 km. The release of CO2-rich fluids from deeper basaltic intrusions towards the reservoir induces seismicity and potentially reactivates faults connecting the reservoir to the surface. While this conceptual model is well-accepted, there is still a debate whether temporally variable surface CO2fluxes directly reflect degassing of intrusions or variations in fault permeability. Here, we report the first large-scale numerical model of fluid and heat transport for Mammoth Mountain. We discuss processes (i) leading to the initial formation of the CO2-rich gas reservoir prior to the occurrence of high surface CO2degassing rates and (ii) controlling current CO2degassing at the surface. Although the modeling settings are site-specific, the key mechanisms discussed in this study are likely at play at other volcanic systems hosting CO2-rich gas reservoirs. In particular, our model results illustrate the role of convection in stripping a CO2-rich gas phase from a rising hydrothermal fluid and leading to an accumulation of a large mass of CO2(∼107–108t) in a shallow gas reservoir. Moreover, we show that both, short-lived (months to years) and long-lived (hundreds of years) events of magmatic fluid injection can lead to critical pressures within the reservoir and potentially trigger fault reactivation. Our sensitivity analysis suggests that observed temporal fluctuations in surface degassing are only indirectly controlled by variations in magmatic degassing and are mainly the result of temporally variable fault permeability. Finally, we suggest that long-term CO2emission monitoring, seismic tomography and coupled thermal–hydraulic–mechanical modeling are important for CO2-related hazard mitigation.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geological Sciences
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geological Sciences > Rock-Water Interaction

UniBE Contributor:

Wanner, Christoph

Subjects:

500 Science > 550 Earth sciences & geology

ISSN:

0012-821X

Publisher:

Elsevier

Language:

English

Submitter:

Christoph Wanner

Date Deposited:

17 Jan 2018 13:51

Last Modified:

31 Aug 2020 11:56

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/j.epsl.2017.12.038

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.108615

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/108615

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