The portal hypertension syndrome: etiology, classification, relevance, and animal models.

Bosch, Jaime; Iwakiri, Yasuko (2018). The portal hypertension syndrome: etiology, classification, relevance, and animal models. Hepatology international, 12(Suppl 1), pp. 1-10. Springer 10.1007/s12072-017-9827-9

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BACKGROUND Portal hypertension is a key complication of portal hypertension, which is responsible for the development of varices, ascites, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy, which, in turn, cause a high mortality and requirement for liver transplantation. AIM This review deals with the present day state-of-the-art preventative treatments of portal hypertension in cirrhosis according to disease stage. Two main disease stages are considered, compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, the first having good prognosis and being mostly asymptomatic, and the second being heralded by the appearance of bleeding or non-bleeding complications of portal hypertension. RESULTS The aim of treatment in compensated cirrhosis is preventing clinical decompensation, the more frequent event being ascites, followed by variceal bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy. Complications are mainly driven by an increase of hepatic vein pressure gradient (HVPG) to values ≥10 mmHg (defining the presence of Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension, CSPH). Before CSPH, the treatment is limited to etiologic treatment of cirrhosis and healthy life style (abstain from alcohol, avoid/correct obesity…). When CSPH is present, association of a non-selective beta-blocker (NSBB), including carvedilol should be considered. NSBBs are mandatory if moderate/large varices are present. Patients should also enter a screening program for hepatocellular carcinoma. In decompensated patients, the goal is to prevent further bleeding if the only manifestation of decompensation was a bleeding episode, but to prevent liver transplantation and death in the common scenario where patients have manifested first non-bleeding complications. Treatment is based on the same principles (healthy life style..) associated with administration of NSBBs in combination if possible with endoscopic band ligation if there has been variceal bleeding, and complemented with simvastatin administration (20-40 mg per day in Child-Pugh A/B, 10-20 mg in Child C). Recurrence shall be treated with TIPS. TIPS might be indicated earlier in patients with: 1) Difficult/refractory ascites, who are not the best candidates for NSBBs, 2) patients having bleed under NSBBs or showing no HVPG response (decrease in HVPG of at least 20% of baseline or to values equal or below 12 mmHg). Decompensated patients shall all be considered as potential candidates for liver transplantation. CONCLUSION Treatment of portal hypertension has markedly improved in recent years. The present day therapy is based on accurate risk stratification according to disease stage.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gastro-intestinal, Liver and Lung Disorders (DMLL) > Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine > Hepatology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > DBMR Forschung Mu35 > Forschungsgruppe Hepatologie
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > DBMR Forschung Mu35 > Forschungsgruppe Hepatologie

UniBE Contributor:

Bosch, Jaime

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1936-0541

Publisher:

Springer

Language:

English

Submitter:

Thi Thao Anh Pham

Date Deposited:

31 Jan 2018 15:29

Last Modified:

25 Oct 2019 00:36

Publisher DOI:

10.1007/s12072-017-9827-9

PubMed ID:

29064029

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Portal hypertension

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.109619

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/109619

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