Reference Ranges for Fetal Atrioventricular and Ventriculoatrial Time Intervals and Their Ratios during Normal Pregnancy.

Mosimann, Beatrice; Arampatzis, Georgios; Amylidi-Mohr, Sofia; Bessire, Anice; Spinelli, Marialuigia; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Surbek, Daniel; Raio, Luigi (2018). Reference Ranges for Fetal Atrioventricular and Ventriculoatrial Time Intervals and Their Ratios during Normal Pregnancy. Fetal diagnosis and therapy, 44(3), pp. 228-235. Karger 10.1159/000481349

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BACKGROUND The diagnostic assessment of fetal arrhythmias relies on the measurements of atrioventricular (AV) and ventriculoatrial (VA) time intervals. Pulsed Doppler over in- and outflow of the left ventricle and tissue Doppler imaging are well-described methods, while Doppler measurements between the left brachiocephalic vein and the aortic arch are less investigated. The aim of this study was to compare these methods of measurement, to find influencing factors on AV and VA times and their ratio, and to create reference ranges. METHODS Echocardiography was performed between 16 and 40 weeks of gestation in normal singleton pregnancies. Nomograms for the individual measurements were created using quantile regression with Matlab Data Analytics. Statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad version 5.0 for Windows. RESULTS A total of 329 pregnant women were enrolled. A significant correlation exists between AV and VA times and gestational age (GA) (p = 0.0104 to <0.0001, σ = 0.1412 to 0.3632). No correlation was found between the AV:VA ratio and GA (p = 0.08 to 0.60). All measurements differed significantly amongst the studied methods (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS AV and VA intervals increase proportionally with GA; no other independent influencing factors could be identified. As significant differences exist between the three methods of assessment, it is crucial to use appropriate reference ranges to diagnose pathologies.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Gynaecology

UniBE Contributor:

Mosimann, Beatrice; Amylidi, Sofia Kalypso; Spinelli, Marialuigia; Surbek, Daniel and Raio, Luigi


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Monika Zehr

Date Deposited:

26 Mar 2018 10:28

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 08:12

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Atrioventricular time Fetal echocardiography Fetal heart rate Prenatal diagnosis Ventriculoatrial time




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