Cytotoxic effects of polycarbonate-based orthodontic brackets by activation of mitochondrial apoptotic mechanisms

Kloukos, Dimitrios; Taoufik, Era; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, George (2013). Cytotoxic effects of polycarbonate-based orthodontic brackets by activation of mitochondrial apoptotic mechanisms. Dental materials, 29(3), e35-e44. Amsterdam: Elsevier 10.1016/

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OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the biological effects of water eluents from polycarbonate based esthetic orthodontic brackets. METHODS: The composite polycarbonate brackets tested were Silkon Plus (SL, fiber-glass-reinforced), Elan ME (EL, ceramic particle-reinforced) and Elegance (EG, fiber-glass-reinforced). An unfilled polyoxymethylene bracket (Brilliant, BR) was used as control. The brackets' composition was analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectrometry. The cytotoxicity and estrogenicity of the eluents obtained after 3months storage of the brackets in water (37°C) were investigated in murine fibroblasts (NIH 3T3), breast (MCF-7) and cervical cancer (CCl-2/Hela) cell lines. RESULTS: SL and EG were based on aromatic-polycarbonate matrix, whereas EL consisted of an aromatic polycarbonate-polyethylene terepthalate copolymer. A significant induction of cell death and a concurrent decrease in cell proliferation was noted in the EG eluent-treated cells. Moreover, EG eluent significantly reduced the levels of the estrogen signaling associated gene pS2, specifically in MCF7 cells, suggesting that cell death induced by this material is associated with downregulation of estrogen signaling pathways. Even though oxidative stress mechanisms were equally activated by all eluents, the EG eluents induced expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and reduced Bcl-xL protein levels. SIGNIFICANCE: Some polycarbonate-based composite brackets when exposed to water release substances than activate mitochondrial apoptosis.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Orthodontics

UniBE Contributor:

Kloukos, Dimitrios (B), Eliades, Theodore, Katsaros, Christos


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:30

Last Modified:

29 Mar 2023 23:32

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Web of Science ID:




URI: (FactScience: 217361)

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