Persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae sequence types in spite of a control program for enzootic pneumonia in pigs.

Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter (2017). Persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae sequence types in spite of a control program for enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Preventive veterinary medicine, 145, pp. 67-72. Elsevier 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.06.007

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Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs caused by Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae has successfully been combatted in Switzerland. A control program was fully implemented in 2004 which is based on total depopulation strategies of affected fattening farms as well as partial depopulation on breeding farms. Thereby, the number of cases has dropped drastically from more than 200 in 2003 to two cases in 2013. Currently monitoring is done based on clinical observation and subsequent diagnostic of coughing pigs. Moreover, in case of more than 10% gross pathological lesions per slaughter batch laboratory confirmation for EP is compulsory. Despite these strict measures it was not possible to eliminate M. hyopneumoniae from Swiss pig production. In fact, during the last few years the number of EP cases has slightly increased. Therefore, genotyping of the involved M. hyopneumoniae strains was conducted in order to elucidate possible sources and routes of infection. All available and typeable samples from totally 22 cases during the period 2014-2016 were investigated by extended multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 16 cases, including eight from 2014, five from 2015 and three from 2016 could thereby be included in the study. MLST revealed that the majority of cases in 2014/2015 were due to two major spread scenarios, i.e. two M. hyopneumoniae sequence types, each scenario involving six individual production farms in five to six different Cantons (states), respectively. Moreover, by comparison of archived sequences some sequence types were observed over ten years demonstrating their persistence over a long time and the possible partial failure of elimination measures in Switzerland. Insufficient sanitation on affected farms and subsequent animal transport of symptomless infected pigs could lead to recurrent cases. Wild boar harbor identical strains found with EP but solid data are missing to assign a role as reservoir to this wild animal. Implementing a monitoring scheme for M. hyopneumoniae in wild boar in combination with genotyping of all available samples from domestic pigs could direct responsible authorities to possible gaps and deficiencies of control measures taken for combating enzootic pneumonia. With the newly installed PubMLST database sequence types for M. hyopneumoniae are now available and allow tracing back strains on the international level.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


05 Veterinary Medicine > Research Foci > Host-Pathogen Interaction
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP)
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology

UniBE Contributor:

Overesch, Gudrun and Kuhnert, Peter


500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology > 630 Agriculture








Peter Kuhnert-Ryser

Date Deposited:

17 May 2018 11:52

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 06:09

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Epidemiology Eradication Genotyping MLST Swine disease p146




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