Is self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) harmful? An individual participant data meta-analysis

Karyotaki, Eirini; Kemmeren, Lise; Riper, Heleen; Twisk, Jos; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan; Kleiboer, Annet; Mira, Adriana; Mackinnon, Andrew; Meyer, Björn; Botella, Cristina; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Andersson, Gerhard; Christensen, Helen; Klein, Jan P.; Schröder, Johanna; Bretón-López, Juana; Scheider, Justine; Griffiths, Kathy; Farrer, Louise; Huibers, Marcus J. H.; ... (2018). Is self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) harmful? An individual participant data meta-analysis. Psychological medicine, 48(15), pp. 2456-2466. Cambridge University Press 10.1017/S0033291718000648

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Background: Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions. Several socio-demographic, clinical and study-level variables were tested as potential moderators of deterioration.
Methods: Randomised controlled trials that reported results of self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions in adults with symptoms of depression were selected. Mixed effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine possible clinically significant deterioration rates.
Results: Thirteen out of 16 eligible trials were included in the present IPD meta-analysis. Of the 3805 participants analysed, 7.2% showed clinically significant deterioration (5.8% and 9.1% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Participants in self-guided iCBT were less likely to deteriorate (OR 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with control conditions. None of the examined participant- and study-level moderators were significantly associated with deterioration rates.
Conclusions: Self-guided iCBT has a lower rate of negative outcomes on symptoms than control conditions and could be a first step treatment approach for adult depression as well as an alternative to watchful waiting in general practice.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Further Contribution)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy
07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology

UniBE Contributor:

Berger, Thomas (B)


100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Cambridge University Press




Salome Irina Rahel Bötschi

Date Deposited:

09 May 2018 09:38

Last Modified:

29 Mar 2023 23:35

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





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