The Quiet Eye and Motor Expertise: Explaining the "Efficiency Paradox"

Klostermann, André; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim (2018). The Quiet Eye and Motor Expertise: Explaining the "Efficiency Paradox". Frontiers in psychology, 9(104) Frontiers Research Foundation 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00104

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It has been consistently reported that experts show longer quiet eye (QE) durations when compared to near-experts and novices. However, this finding is rather paradoxical as motor expertise is characterized by an economization of motor-control processes rather than by a prolongation in response programming, a suggested explanatory mechanism of the QE phenomenon. Therefore, an inhibition hypothesis was proposed that suggests an inhibition of non-optimal task solutions over movement parametrization, which is particularly necessary in experts due to the great extent and high density of their experienced task-solution space. In the current study, the effect of the task-solution space' extension was tested by comparing the QE-duration gains in groups that trained a far-aiming task with a small number (low-extent) vs. a large number (high-extent) of task variants. After an extensive training period of more than 750 trials, both groups showed superior performance in post-test and retention test when compared to pretest and longer QE durations in post-test when compared to pretest. However, the QE durations dropped to baseline values at retention. Finally, the expected additional gain in QE duration for the high-extent group was not found and thus, the assumption of long QE durations due to an extended task-solution space was not confirmed. The findings were (by tendency) more in line with the density explanation of the inhibition hypothesis. This density argument suits research revealing a high specificity of motor skills in experts thus providing worthwhile options for future research on the paradoxical relation between the QE and motor expertise.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Sport Science (ISPW)
07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Sport Science (ISPW) > Movement and Exercise Science

UniBE Contributor:

Klostermann, André and Hossner, Ernst-Joachim


700 Arts > 790 Sports, games & entertainment




Frontiers Research Foundation




André Klostermann

Date Deposited:

28 Mar 2018 15:04

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 17:12

Publisher DOI:





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