Metabolic evaluation of patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.

Hess, B.; Hasler-Strub, U.; Ackermann, D.; Jaeger, Ph. (1997). Metabolic evaluation of patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation, 12(7), pp. 1362-1368. Oxford University Press 10.1093/ndt/12.7.1362

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Background: Metabolic evaluation in recurrent idiopathic calcium renal stone-formers (RCSF) was analysed with respect to the following questions: (1) do three 24-h urines provide more diagnostic accuracy in the metabolic evaluation of RCSF than 1 or 2 urines?; (2) does time after stone event influence the diagnostic yield?; (3) is urine composition at weekends different from that at mid-week?; (4) what are the prevalences of the most important risk factors (RF) of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, i.e. low volume (LV), hypercalciuria (HC), hyperoxaluria (HO), hyperuricosuria (HU), hypocitraturia (Hypo-Cit), and hypomagnesiuria (Hypo-Mg)?; and (5) do male RCSF differ from females with respect to urinary RFs?
Methods: Seventy-five RCSF (59 men, 16 women) collected three 24-h urines (U1-3) while on free-choice diet. To account for possible variations in lifestyle and diet, U1 and U3 had to be collected midweek and U2 at a weekend.
Results: When considering all three urines together (U1 + U2 + U3), the number of RF abnormalities/patient was 2.8 +/- 0.1, higher than numbers of any combination of two urines or of any single urine (P = 0.0001 for all comparisons). The number of RF abnormalities also rose with time after stone event, from 0.8 +/- 0.1 (range 0-4) in U1 to 1.1 +/- 0.1 (range 0-4) in U3 (P = 0.011 vs U1). Whereas all other RF did not change between collections, urine volume was lower in U2 (1793 +/- 90 ml) than in U1 (2071 +/- 97 ml, P = 0.0001 vs U2) and U3 (1946 +/- 97 ml, P = 0.046 vs U2). At least 1 abnormality was found in 85.3% of all RCSF, and multiple abnormalities occurred in 47%. The most frequent RF was HC (39%), followed by HO and LV (32% each), Hypo-Cit (29%), HU (23%) and Hypo-Mg (19%). Males more often had Hypo-Cit (P < 0.001) and Hypo-Mg (P < 0.01) than females, whereas HO was more frequent in female RCSF (P < 0.025 vs males).
Conclusions: Diagnostic accuracy of metabolic evaluation in RCSF increases both with the number of urines collected and the time passing after a stone event. Urines collected at weekends differ from those of the week only by their lower volumes. Abnormalities of RF for calcium nephrolithiasis can be detected in 85.3% of RCSF, and HC is the most common RF both in male and female RCSF.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of General Internal Medicine (DAIM) > Clinic of General Internal Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Dermatology, Urology, Rheumatology, Nephrology, Osteoporosis (DURN) > Clinic of Urology

UniBE Contributor:

Ackermann, Daniel Konrad


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Oxford University Press




Marceline Brodmann

Date Deposited:

01 Oct 2020 08:57

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:13

Publisher DOI:





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