Dose calculation of dynamic trajectory radiotherapy using Monte Carlo.

Manser, Peter; Frauchiger, Daniel; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Terribilini, Dario; Fix, Michael (2019). Dose calculation of dynamic trajectory radiotherapy using Monte Carlo. Zeitschrift für medizinische Physik, 29(1), pp. 31-38. Elsevier 10.1016/j.zemedi.2018.03.002

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Using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery technique gantry position, multi-leaf collimator (MLC) as well as dose rate change dynamically during the application. However, additional components can be dynamically altered throughout the dose delivery such as the collimator or the couch. Thus, the degrees of freedom increase allowing almost arbitrary dynamic trajectories for the beam. While the dose delivery of such dynamic trajectories for linear accelerators is technically possible, there is currently no dose calculation and validation tool available. Thus, the aim of this work is to develop a dose calculation and verification tool for dynamic trajectories using Monte Carlo (MC) methods.


The dose calculation for dynamic trajectories is implemented in the previously developed Swiss Monte Carlo Plan (SMCP). SMCP interfaces the treatment planning system Eclipse with a MC dose calculation algorithm and is already able to handle dynamic MLC and gantry rotations. Hence, the additional dynamic components, namely the collimator and the couch, are described similarly to the dynamic MLC by defining data pairs of positions of the dynamic component and the corresponding MU-fractions. For validation purposes, measurements are performed with the Delta4 phantom and film measurements using the developer mode on a TrueBeam linear accelerator. These measured dose distributions are then compared with the corresponding calculations using SMCP. First, simple academic cases applying one-dimensional movements are investigated and second, more complex dynamic trajectories with several simultaneously moving components are compared considering academic cases as well as a clinically motivated prostate case.


The dose calculation for dynamic trajectories is successfully implemented into SMCP. The comparisons between the measured and calculated dose distributions for the simple as well as for the more complex situations show an agreement which is generally within 3% of the maximum dose or 3mm. The required computation time for the dose calculation remains the same when the additional dynamic moving components are included.


The results obtained for the dose comparisons for simple and complex situations suggest that the extended SMCP is an accurate dose calculation and efficient verification tool for dynamic trajectory radiotherapy. This work was supported by Varian Medical Systems.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Radiation Oncology > Medical Radiation Physics

UniBE Contributor:

Manser, Peter, Frauchiger, Daniel, Frei, Daniel, Volken, Werner, Terribilini, Dario, Fix, Michael








Beatrice Scheidegger

Date Deposited:

21 Jun 2018 15:08

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:13

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Dose calculation Dynamic trajectories Monte Carlo Verification




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