Global Carbon Budget 2017

Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; ... (2018). Global Carbon Budget 2017. Earth System Science Data, 10(1), pp. 405-448. Copernicus Publications 10.5194/essd-10-405-2018

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Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO₂ emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO₂ concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO₂ sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO₂ sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007–2016), EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr⁻¹ indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr⁻¹, with a small BIM of −0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007–2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND consistent with El Niño conditions. The global atmospheric CO₂ concentration reached 402.8 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2016. For 2017, preliminary data for the first 6–9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.0 % (range of 0.8 to 3.0 %) based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of gross domestic product (GDP) corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017 (GCP, 2017).

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Climate and Environmental Physics
10 Strategic Research Centers > Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR)

UniBE Contributor:

Lienert, Sebastian

Subjects:

500 Science > 530 Physics

ISSN:

1866-3516

Publisher:

Copernicus Publications

Language:

English

Submitter:

Doris Rätz

Date Deposited:

24 May 2018 10:46

Last Modified:

19 Jul 2018 11:23

Publisher DOI:

10.5194/essd-10-405-2018

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.116576

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/116576

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