Comparison of implant stability by means of resonance frequency analysis for flapless and conventionally inserted implants

Katsoulis, Joannis; Avrampou, Marianna; Spycher, Christian; Stipic, Marko; Enkling, Norbert; Mericske-Stern, Regina (2012). Comparison of implant stability by means of resonance frequency analysis for flapless and conventionally inserted implants. Clinical implant dentistry and related research, 14(6), pp. 915-23. Oxford: Blackwell 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2010.00326.x

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Background: Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is a noninvasive technique for the quantitative assessment of implant stability. Information on the implant stability quotient (ISQ) of transmucosally inserted implants is limited. Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to compare the ISQ of conventionally inserted implants by raising a muco-periostal flap with implants inserted using a flapless procedure. Materials and Methods: Forty elderly patients with complete edentulous maxilla were consecutively admitted for treatment with implant-supported prostheses. A computer tomography was obtained for the computer-assisted implant planning. One hundred ten implants were placed conventionally in 23 patients (flap-group) and 85 implants in 17 patients by means of the flapless method (flapless-group) using a stereolithographic template. RFA measurements were performed after implant placement (baseline) and after a healing time of 12 weeks (reentry). Results: All implants exhibited clinically and radiographically successful osseointegration. Bone level did not change significantly neither for genders nor type of surgical protocol. Mean ISQ values of the flapless-group were significantly higher at baseline (p < .001) and at reentry (p < .001) compared with the flap-group. The ISQ values were significantly lower at reentry compared with baseline for the flap-group (p = .028) but not for the flapless-group. This group showed a moderate, but insignificant increase. RFA measurements of males resulted in ISQ values that were thoroughly higher as compared with females at both time-points in both groups. Correlation between RFA and bone level was not found. Conclusions: The flapless procedure showed favorable conditions with regard to implant stability and crestal bone level. Some changes of the ISQ values that represent primary (mechanical) and secondary (bone remodeling) implant stability were observed in slight favor of the flapless method and male patients. In properly planned and well-selected cases, the minimal invasive transmucosal technique using a drill-guide is a safe procedure.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Prosthodontics [discontinued]

UniBE Contributor:

Mericske, Regina; Avrampou, Maria and Enkling, Norbert








Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:31

Last Modified:

25 Jan 2017 12:16

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Web of Science ID:


URI: (FactScience: 217961)

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