Tuberculosis outbreak investigation using phylodynamic analysis.

Kühnert, Denise; Coscolla, Mireia; Brites, Daniela; Stucki, David; Metcalfe, John; Fenner, Lukas; Gagneux, Sebastien; Stadler, Tanja (2018). Tuberculosis outbreak investigation using phylodynamic analysis. Epidemics, 25, pp. 47-53. Elsevier 10.1016/j.epidem.2018.05.004

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The fast evolution of pathogenic viruses has allowed for the development of phylodynamic approaches that extract information about the epidemiological characteristics of viral genomes. Thanks to advances in whole genome sequencing, they can be applied to slowly evolving bacterial pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we investigate and compare the epidemiological dynamics underlying two M. tuberculosis outbreaks using phylodynamic methods. Specifically, we (i) test if the outbreak data sets contain enough genetic variation to estimate short-term evolutionary rates and (ii) reconstruct epidemiological parameters such as the effective reproduction number. The first outbreak occurred in the Swiss city of Bern (1987-2012) and was caused by a drug-susceptible strain belonging to the phylogenetic M. tuberculosis Lineage 4. The second outbreak was caused by a multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain of Lineage 2, imported from the Wat Tham Krabok (WTK) refugee camp in Thailand into California. There is little temporal signal in the Bern data set and moderate temporal signal in the WTK data set. Thanks to its high sampling proportion (90%) the Bern outbreak allows robust estimation of epidemiological parameters despite the poor temporal signal. Conversely, there is much uncertainty in the epidemiological estimates concerning the sparsely sampled (9%) WTK outbreak. Our results suggest that both outbreaks peaked around 1990, although they were only recognized as outbreaks in 1993 (Bern) and 2004 (WTK). Furthermore, individuals were infected for a significantly longer period (around 9 years) in the WTK outbreak than in the Bern outbreak (4-5 years). Our work highlights both the limitations and opportunities of phylodynamic analysis of outbreaks involving slowly evolving pathogens: (i) estimation of the evolutionary rate is difficult on outbreak time scales and (ii) a high sampling proportion allows quantification of the age of the outbreak based on the sampling times, and thus allows for robust estimation of epidemiological parameters.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Fenner, Lukas

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services

ISSN:

1755-4365

Publisher:

Elsevier

Language:

English

Submitter:

Tanya Karrer

Date Deposited:

21 Jun 2018 14:08

Last Modified:

15 Nov 2018 01:31

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/j.epidem.2018.05.004

PubMed ID:

29880306

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Epidemic dynamics Phylodynamic analysis Transmission dynamics Tuberculosis outbreak

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.117207

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/117207

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