Palynostratigraphic Investigations of the Late-Glacial and Holocene Vegetation History of the Northwestern Calcareous Swiss Prealps

Wegmüller, Samuel; Lotter, André F. (1990). Palynostratigraphic Investigations of the Late-Glacial and Holocene Vegetation History of the Northwestern Calcareous Swiss Prealps. Botanica Helvetica, 100(1), pp. 37-73. SP Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 10.5169/seals-69711

[img] Text
1990_BotanicaHelv_100_37.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to registered users only
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (21MB) | Request a copy

Two mires in the montane and subalpine belt of the Bernese Oberland (Switzerland) were studied: Aegelsee at 995 m a.s.l., and Schwarzmoos at 1770 m a.s.l. The present Vegetation of both mires was mapped (Figs. 4, and 10) and the lithostratigraphy was investigated by means of several corings (Figs. 5, 6, 11, and 12): minerogenic limnic deposition began already before Bölling. The onset of organic Sedimentation at Aegelsee started during Boreal (ca 9000 B.P.) whereas at Schwarzmoos it took place at the transition from Atlantic to Subboreal (5000 B.P.). The main features of the Vegetation history at both elevations are summarized in Tab. 3. Reforestation at Aegelsee occurred at about 12,700 B.P. by Juniperus-Hippophae Stands which were replaced by tree birch around 12,500 B.P. A regressive phase in Vegetation development occuring before 12,000 B.P. has been evidenced. The expansion of Pinus started at 12,000 B.P. and the occurrence of the Laacher See Tephra-layer allowed a precise location of the transition from the Alleröd to the Younger Dryas chronozone (11,000 B.P.). During the Younger Dryas the timberline was situated above Aegelsee. Schwarzmoos and its surroundings were above timberline during the whole LateGlacial: a sparse pioneer Vegetation with a Juniperus and Salix scrub grew on open soils. At Aegelsee the species of the Quercetum mixtum as well as Corylus spread during Boreal. The migration and spread ofAbies occurred between 6600 and 6300 B.P. whereas Picea spread at 5000 B.P. At Schwarzmoos an increase in birch is observed during Preboreal. At the onset of the Boreal, species-rich alpine meadows expanded and were eventually displaced by the expanding spruce-forest at the end of the Younger Atlantic. The migration of Pinus cembra together with Larix is evidenced at about 8500 B.P. The migration of Picea into the subalpine belt took place at 5500 B.P. (first traces at 6500 B.P.). Its spread at 5000 B.P. is evidenced by the abundance of its macrofossils. As a consequence the timberline rose above Schwarzmoos, and until the Younger Subatlantic (1000 B.P.) the Vegetation of the subalpine region was characterized by Picea forests and on exposed places by Pinus mugo Stands. At Aegelsee first traces of anthropogenic indicators in the pollen diagrams were detected between 5400 and 5000 B.P. after the spread of Picea. Forest Clearing occurred also during the late Bronze Age and especially during the Middle Ages. In the subalpine belt, the important Clearings for pastures took place during the Younger Subatlantic.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS) > Palaeoecology
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS)

UniBE Contributor:

Wegmüller, Samuel and Lotter, André Franz

Subjects:

500 Science > 580 Plants (Botany)

ISSN:

0253-1453

Publisher:

SP Birkhäuser Verlag Basel

Language:

German

Submitter:

Peter Alfred von Ballmoos-Haas

Date Deposited:

13 Aug 2018 15:32

Last Modified:

21 Nov 2019 00:37

Publisher DOI:

10.5169/seals-69711

Uncontrolled Keywords:

late-glacial and holocene vegetation, chronostratigraphy, human impact, timberline fluctuations, Swiss Alps

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.119247

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/119247

Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback