Iron in Cilicia: an interdisciplinary research project on the archaeometallurgy in Kizzuwatna – work in progress

Graber-Pesonen, Joëlle Lisa-Maria (2017). Iron in Cilicia: an interdisciplinary research project on the archaeometallurgy in Kizzuwatna – work in progress (Unpublished). In: Öztunalı 2017 International Symposium on Geoarchaeology, Ancient Mining and Metallurgy. Istanbul University Congress and Culture Centre, Turkey. 1.-5.11.2017.

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Iron is one of the most important commodities in the world. The development of technologies for processing of iron is considered as one of the most important steps in the history of mankind. The beginning of this technology is found in the Near East but still is a topic of controversial discussions; crucial questions e. g. about the mono- or polycentric origin as well as the social and technological circumstances could not be answered conclusively yet. This desideratum is due to the circumstances of especially poor preservation status of iron artifacts, which made it difficult to carry out archaeometallurgical studies. However, refined possibilities enable better scientific analysis. Due to a famous letter (KBo I.14) Kizzuwatna, the ancient region of Cilicia, was regarded as the earliest production area of utilitarian iron even before the beginning of the Iron Age, a theory that is believed not without controversy today.

The aim of the thesis is a detailed study on the development of early iron metallurgy in Cilicia based on archaeological and philological methods supplemented by scientific analysis of the objects. Using archaeological methods such as typologies and distribution maps it will be possible to check this assumption. Moreover, the textual evidence of the Hittite Empire as well as the Old Assyrian texts from Kültepe will come under scrutiny. The objective is to analyze the factors of production and economy for both the cause and the impact of the adaption of iron technology on the one hand and the social conditions and consequences of this technological change. Additionally, objects from different sites in Cilicia are sampled and analyzed to answer different questions e. g. steel production, quality of the material, and possible provenience.

Item Type:

Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)


06 Faculty of Humanities > Department of History and Archaeology > Institute of Archaeological Sciences > Near Eastern Archaeology

UniBE Contributor:

Graber-Pesonen, Joëlle Lisa-Maria


500 Science > 540 Chemistry
600 Technology > 660 Chemical engineering
900 History > 930 History of ancient world (to ca. 499)




Joëlle Lisa-Maria Graber-Pesonen

Date Deposited:

03 Oct 2018 11:02

Last Modified:

30 Oct 2019 08:38




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