A new variant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3 lacking the entire apxII operon

Kuhnert, P.; Rohde, Judith; Korczak, B.M. (2011). A new variant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3 lacking the entire apxII operon. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation, 23(3), pp. 556-9. Columbia, Mo.: American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians AAVLD 10.1177/1040638711404148

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Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important respiratory pathogen causing pleuropneumonia in pig. The species is genetically characterized by the presence of 4 RTX (Repeats in the Structural ToXin) toxin genes: apxI, apxII, and apxIII genes are differentially present in various combinations among the different serotypes, thereby defining pathogenicity; the apxIV gene is present in all serotypes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based apx gene typing is done in many veterinary diagnostic laboratories, especially reference laboratories. The present report describes the isolation of atypical A. pleuropneumoniae from 4 independent cases from 2 countries. All isolates were beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (beta-NAD) dependent and nonhemolytic but showed strong co-hemolysis with the sphingomyelinase of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar. Classical biochemical tests as well as Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and sequence-based analysis (16S ribosomal RNA [rRNA] and rpoB genes) identified them as A. pleuropneumoniae. Apx-toxin gene typing using 2 different PCR systems showed the presence of apxIV and only the apxIII operon (apxIIICABD). None of the apxI or apxII genes were present as confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The 16S rRNA and rpoB gene analyses as well as serotype-specific PCR indicate that the isolates are variants of serotype 3. Strains harboring only apxIV and the apxIII operon are possibly emerging types of A. pleuropneumoniae and should therefore be carefully monitored for epidemiological reasons.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


05 Veterinary Medicine > Research Foci > Host-Pathogen Interaction
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology

UniBE Contributor:

Kuhnert, Peter and Korczak, Bozena




American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians AAVLD




Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:31

Last Modified:

03 Mar 2015 15:53

Publisher DOI:


Web of Science ID:





https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/12132 (FactScience: 218418)

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