Sleep-Wake Cycling and Energy Conservation: Role of Hypocretin and the Lateral Hypothalamus in Dynamic State-Dependent Resource Optimization

Latifi, Blerina; Adamantidis, Antoine Roger; Bassetti, Claudio; Schmidt, Markus H. (2018). Sleep-Wake Cycling and Energy Conservation: Role of Hypocretin and the Lateral Hypothalamus in Dynamic State-Dependent Resource Optimization. Frontiers in neurology, 9, p. 790. Frontiers Media S.A. 10.3389/fneur.2018.00790

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The hypocretin (Hcrt) system has been implicated in a wide range of physiological functions from sleep-wake regulation to cardiovascular, behavioral, metabolic, and thermoregulagtory control. These wide-ranging physiological effects have challenged the identification of a parsimonious function for Hcrt. A compelling hypothesis suggests that Hcrt plays a role in the integration of sleep-wake neurophysiology with energy metabolism. For example, Hcrt neurons promote waking and feeding, but are also sensors of energy balance. Loss of Hcrt function leads to an increase in REM sleep propensity, but a potential role for Hcrt linking energy balance with REM sleep expression has not been addressed. Here we examine a potential role for Hcrt and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in state-dependent resource allocation as a means of optimizing resource utilization and, as a result, energy conservation. We review the energy allocation hypothesis of sleep and how state-dependent metabolic partitioning may contribute toward energy conservation, but with additional examination of how the loss of thermoregulatory function during REM sleep may impact resource optimization. Optimization of energy expenditures at the whole organism level necessitates a top-down network responsible for coordinating metabolic operations in a state-dependent manner across organ systems. In this context, we then specifically examine the potential role of the LH in regulating this output control, including the contribution from both Hcrt and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons among a diverse LH cell population. We propose that this hypothalamic integration system is responsible for global shifts in state-dependent resource allocations, ultimately promoting resource optimization and an energy conservation function of sleep-wake cycling.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > DCR Unit Sahli Building > Forschungsgruppe Neurologie

UniBE Contributor:

Adamantidis, Antoine Roger; Bassetti, Claudio and Schmidt, Markus


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Frontiers Media S.A.




Emilie Seydoux

Date Deposited:

28 Nov 2018 13:42

Last Modified:

14 Mar 2021 03:46

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





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