Tardive Dyskinesia Associated with Atypical Antipsychotics: Prevalence, Mechanisms and Management Strategies.

Stegmayer, Katharina Deborah Lena; Walther, Sebastian; van Harten, Peter (2018). Tardive Dyskinesia Associated with Atypical Antipsychotics: Prevalence, Mechanisms and Management Strategies. CNS drugs, 32(2), pp. 135-147. Springer 10.1007/s40263-018-0494-8

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All antipsychotics, including the atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially irreversible movement disorder, the pathophysiology of which is currently unknown. The prevention and treatment of TD remain major challenges for clinicians. We conducted a PubMed search to review the prevalence and etiology of and management strategies for TD associated with AAPs. TD prevalence rates varied substantially between studies, with an estimated prevalence of around 20% in patients using AAPs. The risk of TD is lower with AAPs than with typical antipsychotics (TAPs) but remains a problem because AAPs are increasingly being prescribed. Important risk factors associated with TD include the duration of antipsychotic use, age, and ethnicity other than Caucasian. Theories about the etiology of TD include supersensitivity of the dopamine receptors and oxidative stress, but other neurotransmitters and factors are probably involved. Studies concerning the management of TD have considerable methodological limitations. Thus, recommendations for the management of TD are based on a few trials and clinical experience, and no general guidelines for the management of TD can be established. The best management strategy remains prevention. Caution is required when prescribing antipsychotics, and regular screening is needed for early detection of TD. Other strategies may include reducing the AAP dosage, switching to clozapine, or administering vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT)-2 inhibitors. In severe cases, local injections of botulinum toxin or deep brain stimulation may be considered. More clinical trials in larger samples are needed to gather valid information on the effect of interventions targeting TD.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy > Translational Research Center

UniBE Contributor:

Stegmayer, Katharina Deborah Lena and Walther, Sebastian


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Sebastian Walther

Date Deposited:

07 Dec 2018 15:04

Last Modified:

03 May 2019 13:35

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:




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