In vitro T2 relaxivities of the Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in human blood at 1.5 and 3 T.

Shen, Yaqi; Goerner, Frank L; Heverhagen, Johannes; Snyder, Christopher; Hu, Daoyu; Li, Xiaoming; Runge, Val Murray (2019). In vitro T2 relaxivities of the Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in human blood at 1.5 and 3 T. Acta radiologica, 60(6), pp. 694-701. Sage 10.1177/0284185118799538

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Background The availability of data in the medical literature for the T relaxivities of the Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is limited. A comprehensive comparison between the agents available commercially (other than in Europe) is lacking, with no data available that most closely reflect the clinic, which is in human whole blood at body temperature. Purpose To complement the existing literature by determining T relaxivity data for eight GBCAs in vitro. Material and Methods The relaxivities of eight GBCAs diluted in human whole blood at 1.5 and 3 T were determined at 37 ± 0.5 °C. Gd was in the range of 0-4 mM. Multi-echo sequences with variable echo times were acquired using a phantom containing a dilution series with each agent, and SigmaPlot 12.0 was used to calculate the R relaxation rate and finally r. Statistical comparisons between agents and field strengths were conducted. Results The relationship between R vs. Gd was observed to be linear at 1.5 and 3 T, with a mild increase in r from 1.5 to 3 T for all GBCAs. T relaxivity data were compared with prior results. The GBCAs are closely clustered into two groups, with higher r noted for the two lipophilic (those with partial hepatobiliary excretion) compounds. Conclusion The r values at 1.5 and 3 T, determined for the eight GBCAs still clinically available (other than in Europe), provide a definitive baseline for future evaluations, including theoretical calculations of signal intensity and their clinical impact on T2-weighted scans.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Heverhagen, Johannes and Runge, Val Murray


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Isabelle Ursula Saurer

Date Deposited:

13 Dec 2018 16:07

Last Modified:

24 Oct 2019 00:49

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

1.5 T 3 T T2 relaxivity contrast agent phantom




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