Caries-Preventive Effect of NaF, NaF plus TCP, NaF plus CPP-ACP, and SDF Varnishes on Sound Dentin and Artificial Dentin Caries in vitro

Wierichs, Richard J; Stausberg, Sabrina; Lausch, Julian; Meyer-Lückel, Hendrik; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella (2018). Caries-Preventive Effect of NaF, NaF plus TCP, NaF plus CPP-ACP, and SDF Varnishes on Sound Dentin and Artificial Dentin Caries in vitro. Caries research, 52(3), pp. 199-211. Karger 10.1159/000484483

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The aim of this study was to compare the caries-preventive effect of different fluoride varnishes on sound dentin as well as on artificial dentin caries-like lesions. Bovine dentin specimens (n = 220) with one sound surface (ST) and one artificial caries lesion (DT) were prepared and randomly allocated to 11 groups. The interventions before pH cycling were as follows: application of a varnish containing NaF (22,600 ppm F-; Duraphat [NaF0/NaF1]), NaF plus tricalcium phosphate (22,600 ppm F-; Clinpro White Varnish Mint [TCP0/TCP1]), NaF plus casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate complexes (CPP-ACP; 22,600 ppm F-; MI Varnish [CPP0/CPP1]), or silver diamine fluoride (SDF; 35,400 ppm F-; Cariestop 30% [SDF0/SDF1]) and no intervention (NNB/N0/N1). During pH cycling (14 days, 6 × 120 min demineralization/day) half of the specimens in each group were brushed (10 s; 2 times/day) with either fluoride-free ("0"; e.g., TCP0) or 1,100 ppm F- ("1"; e.g., TCP1) dentifrice slurry. In another subgroup, the specimens were pH cycled but not brushed (NNB). Differences in integrated mineral loss (ΔΔZ), lesion depth (ΔLD), and colorimetric values (ΔΔE) were calculated between the values after initial demineralization and those after pH cycling, using transversal microradiography and photographic images. After pH cycling, no discoloration could be observed. Furthermore, NNB, N0, and N1 showed significantly increased ΔZDT/LDDT and ΔZST/LDST values, indicating further demineralization. In contrast, CPP0, CPP1, SDF0, and SDF1 showed significantly decreased ΔZDT/LDDT values, indicating remineralization (p ≤ 0.004; paired t test). CPP0, CPP1, SDF0, and SDF1 showed significantly higher changes in ΔΔZDT/ΔLDDT and ΔΔZST/ΔLDST than NNB, N0, and N1 (p < 0.001; Bonferroni post hoc test). In conclusion, under the conditions chosen, all fluoride varnishes prevented further demineralization. However, only NaF plus CPP-ACP and SDF could remineralize artificial dentin caries-like lesions under net-demineralizing conditions, thereby indicating that NaF plus CPP-ACP and SDF may be helpful to high-caries-risk patients.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry

UniBE Contributor:

Meyer-Lückel, Hendrik


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Hendrik Meyer-Lückel

Date Deposited:

22 Feb 2019 08:32

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 13:12

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Demineralization Dentin Silver diamine fluoride Varnish pH cycling




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