Prevalence of contact allergy to metals in the European general population with a focus on nickel and piercings: The EDEN Fragrance Study.

Schuttelaar, Marie L A; Ofenloch, Robert F; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Naldi, Luigi; Svensson, Åke; Diepgen, Thomas L (2018). Prevalence of contact allergy to metals in the European general population with a focus on nickel and piercings: The EDEN Fragrance Study. Contact dermatitis, 79(1), pp. 1-9. Wiley-Blackwell 10.1111/cod.12983

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BACKGROUND Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. METHODS In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N = 3119) from the general population (aged 18-74 years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. RESULTS Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in Sweden. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization varied between 3.8% (The Netherlands) and 0.9% (Italy), and the prevalence of chromium sensitization varied between 1.3% (Portugal) and 0.2% (Sweden). Significant associations were observed between nickel allergy and female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.19; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.99-6.74), past piercing use (OR 3.86; 95%CI: 2.85-5.24), and currently having ≥3 piercings (OR 5.58; 95%CI: 4.02-7.76). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of sensitization to metals in the European general population was high, mostly because of nickel. The lowest prevalence of contact allergy to nickel and chromium observed in Sweden supports the effectiveness of long-standing regulation.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Dermatology, Urology, Rheumatology, Nephrology, Osteoporosis (DURN) > Clinic of Dermatology

UniBE Contributor:

Cazzaniga, Simone

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0105-1873

Publisher:

Wiley-Blackwell

Language:

English

Submitter:

Sandra Nyffenegger

Date Deposited:

12 Feb 2019 14:35

Last Modified:

12 Feb 2019 14:35

Publisher DOI:

10.1111/cod.12983

PubMed ID:

29635802

Uncontrolled Keywords:

chromium cobalt contact allergy epidemiology nickel patch testing

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.123398

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/123398

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