Three-dimensional analysis of the physiological foramen geometry of maxillary and mandibular molars by means of micro-CT.

Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Paqué, Frank; Sven Patyna, Michael; Willershausen, Brita; Briseño-Marroquín, Benjamín (2017). Three-dimensional analysis of the physiological foramen geometry of maxillary and mandibular molars by means of micro-CT. International journal of oral science, 9(3), pp. 151-157. Sprinter Nature 10.1038/ijos.2017.29

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The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological foramen diameter, shape and distance between physiological and anatomical apex of maxillary and mandibular first and second molars. Accurate knowledge of the physiological foramina morphology; thus, inherent mechanical shaping technical hindrances, is decisive when taking the corresponding root canal final preparation decision. The morphological dimensions of a total of 1727 physiological foramina were investigated by means of micro-computed tomography. Mean narrow and wide (to a high number, oval) diameters of the physiological foramen were 0.24, 0.22 and 0.33 mm and 0.33, 0.31 and 0.42 mm in mesiobuccal (MB), distobuccal (DB) and palatal (P) roots in maxillary first molars; 0.24, 0.22 and 0.33 mm and 0.41, 0.33 and 0.44 in MB, DB, and P roots in maxillary second molars. Mandibular first molars showed mean narrow and wide diameters of 0.24 and 0.30 mm and of 0.39 and 0.46 mm in mesial (M) and distal (D) roots; second mandibular molars showed 0.25 and 0.31 mm and 0.47 mm in M and D roots. The mean distance between the physiological foramina and anatomical apex was 0.82, 0.81 and 1.02 mm and 0.54, 0.43 and 0.63 mm in MB, DB and P roots of the maxillary first and second molars, respectively. A mean distance of 0.95 mm (M) and 1.05 mm (D) in the first and 0.78 mm (M) and 0.81 mm (D) in the second mandibular molars was observed. Based on the results obtained, assumable recommendations for final preparation size of the physiological foramen were calculated. However, when taking into consideration, the resulting standard deviations of marginal errors must be cautiously considered when taking a final decision in clinical endodontic treatment.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry

UniBE Contributor:

Wolf, Thomas Gerhard


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Sprinter Nature




Hendrik Meyer-Lückel

Date Deposited:

31 Jul 2019 08:29

Last Modified:

24 Oct 2019 05:29

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





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