Effect of bleaching agent extracts on murine macrophages.

Fernandes, Aletéia M M; Vilela, Polyana G F; Valera, Marcia C; Bolay, Carola; Hiller, Karl Anton; Schweikl, Helmut; Schmalz, Gottfried Hans (2018). Effect of bleaching agent extracts on murine macrophages. Clinical oral investigations, 22(4), pp. 1771-1781. Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s00784-017-2273-1

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OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the influence of bleaching agents on immunologically cell surface antigens of murine macrophages in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS RAW 264.7 cells were exposed to bleaching gel extracts (40% hydrogen peroxide or 20% carbamide peroxide) and different HO concentrations after 1 and 24-h exposure periods and 1-h exposure and 23-h recovery. Tests were performed with and without N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The expression of surface markers CD14, CD40, and CD54 with and without LPS stimulation was detected by flow cytometry, while the production of TNF-α was measured by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (α = 0.05). RESULTS Extracts of bleaching agents were cytotoxic for cells after a 1-h exposure; cells could not recover after 24 h. This effect can be mitigated by the antioxidant NAC and increased by BSO, an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis. LPS stimulated expression of all surface markers and TNF-α production. Exposure to bleaching agent extracts and HO leads to a reduction of TNF-α, CD14, and CD40 expression, while the expression of CD54 was upregulated at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Whereas NAC reduced this effect, it was increased in the presence of BSO. CONCLUSIONS Extracts of bleaching agents were irreversibly cytotoxic to macrophages after a 1-h exposure. Only the expression of CD54 was upregulated. The reactions are mediated by the non-enzymatic antioxidant GSH. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The addition of an antioxidant can downregulate unfavorable effects of dental bleaching.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Periodontology
04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > School of Dental Medicine, Periodontics Research

UniBE Contributor:

Schmalz, Gottfried Hans


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Doris Burri

Date Deposited:

03 Jul 2019 15:50

Last Modified:

29 Oct 2019 19:23

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Cytokines Cytotoxicity Dental bleaching Hydrogen peroxide Immunology





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