Value of 3T craniocervical magnetic resonance imaging following nonfatal strangulation.

Heimer, Jakob; Tappero, Carlo Mario Stefano; Gascho, Dominic; Flach, Patricia; Ruder, Thomas; Thali, Michael J; Franckenberg, Sabine (2019). Value of 3T craniocervical magnetic resonance imaging following nonfatal strangulation. European radiology, 29(7), pp. 3458-3466. Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s00330-019-06033-x

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The aims of this study were (1) to provide an overview of craniocervical magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings following nonfatal strangulation (NFS), (2) to detect the time dependency of the presence of these findings, and (3) to explore the additional value of MR with regard to the forensic interpretation of NFS.


All 633 victims of manual strangulation between October 2011 and March 2018 were examined, including the case history and external findings. Following written consent, 114 cases were included in the study. The duration between the event, clinical forensic examination, and MR was noted. Radiologic images were reviewed by a clinical and a forensic radiologist.


The case group consisted of 90 women and 24 men with a mean age of 32.5 years. Delimitable external findings were present in 93% (N = 106) of cases. MR yielded a positive finding in 43% of cases (N = 49). There was no significant difference in the mean time interval between examinations between MR-positive and MR-negative cases. Perilaryngeal fluid accumulation was associated with difficulty swallowing and victims put in a chokehold. All cerebral MR were unremarkable, except for one patient with edema of the corpus callosum.


The role of craniocervical MR following NFS is currently limited, particularly with regard to the forensic interpretation of NFS. MR may reveal internal injury in victims who report subjective symptoms of airway compression and in those who were placed in a chokehold. The presence of MR findings is not dependent on immediate examinations following the assault.


• Magnetic resonance imaging does not currently provide additional value for the estimation of the severity of nonfatal manual strangulation. • Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck may reveal internal injury in cases without external findings, particularly in victims placed in a chokehold and with symptoms of airway compression. • The incidence of carotid artery dissections and laryngeal fractures is low in victims of nonfatal manual strangulation.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Tappero, Carlo Mario Stefano and Ruder, Thomas


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Maria de Fatima Henriques Bernardo

Date Deposited:

15 Apr 2019 18:23

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 19:06

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Facial injuries Forensic pathology Forensic science Magnetic resonance imaging Neck injuries




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