Validation of two accelerated 4D flow MRI sequences at 3 T: a phantom study.

Ebel, Sebastian; Hübner, Lisa; Köhler, Benjamin; Kropf, Siegfried; Preim, Bernhard; Jung, Bernd; Grothoff, Matthias; Gutberlet, Matthias (2019). Validation of two accelerated 4D flow MRI sequences at 3 T: a phantom study. European radiology experimental, 3(1), p. 10. Springer 10.1186/s41747-019-0089-2

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BACKGROUND Four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with advanced parallel imaging have the potential to reduce scan time with equivalent image quality and accuracy compared with standard two-dimensional (2D) flow MRI. We compared 4D flow to standard 2D flow sequences using a constant and pulsatile flow phantom at 3 T. METHODS Two accelerated 4D flow sequences (GRAPPA2 and k-t-GRAPPA5) were evaluated regarding the concordance of flow volumes, flow velocities, and reproducibility as well as dependency on measuring plane and velocity encoding (V). The calculated flow volumes and peak velocities of the phantom were used as reference standard. Flow analysis was performed using the custom-made software "Bloodline". RESULTS No significant differences in flow volume were found between the 2D, both 4D flow MRI sequences, and the pump reference (p = 0.994) or flow velocities (p = 0.998) in continuous and pulsatile flow. An excellent correlation (R = 0.99-1.0) with a reference standard and excellent reproducibility of measurements (R = 0.99) was achieved for all sequences. A V overestimated by up to two times had no impact on flow measurements. However, misaligned measuring planes led to an increasing underestimation of flow volume and mean velocity in 2D flow accuracy, while both 4D flow measurements were not affected. Scan time was significantly shorter for k-t-GRAPPA5 (1:54 ± 0:01 min, mean ± standard deviation) compared to GRAPPA2 (3:56 ± 0:02 min) (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Both 4D flow sequences demonstrated equal agreement with 2D flow measurements, without impact of V overestimation and plane misalignment. The highly accelerated k-t-GRAPPA5 sequence yielded results similar to those of GRAPPA2.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Jung, Bernd


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Maria de Fatima Henriques Bernardo

Date Deposited:

16 Apr 2019 15:54

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 01:33

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Four-dimensional (4D) flow Magnetic resonance imaging Phantoms (imaging) Pulsatile flow Reproducibility of results




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