Genome-wide patterns of homozygosity provide clues about the population history and adaptation of goats.

Bertolini, Francesca; Cardoso, Tainã Figueiredo; Marras, Gabriele; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Rothschild, Max F; Amills, Marcel; AdaptMap, Consortium (2018). Genome-wide patterns of homozygosity provide clues about the population history and adaptation of goats. Genetics, selection, evolution, 50(1), p. 59. BioMed Central 10.1186/s12711-018-0424-8

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BACKGROUND Patterns of homozygosity can be influenced by several factors, such as demography, recombination, and selection. Using the goat SNP50 BeadChip, we genotyped 3171 goats belonging to 117 populations with a worldwide distribution. Our objectives were to characterize the number and length of runs of homozygosity (ROH) and to detect ROH hotspots in order to gain new insights into the consequences of neutral and selection processes on the genome-wide homozygosity patterns of goats. RESULTS The proportion of the goat genome covered by ROH is, in general, less than 15% with an inverse relationship between ROH length and frequency i.e. short ROH (< 3 Mb) are the most frequent ones. Our data also indicate that ~ 60% of the breeds display low F coefficients (< 0.10), while ~ 30 and ~ 10% of the goat populations show moderate (0.10 < F < 0.20) or high (> 0.20) F values. For populations from Asia, the average number of ROH is smaller and their coverage is lower in goats from the Near East than in goats from Central Asia, which is consistent with the role of the Fertile Crescent as the primary centre of goat domestication. We also observed that local breeds with small population sizes tend to have a larger fraction of the genome covered by ROH compared to breeds with tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals. Five regions on three goat chromosomes i.e. 11, 12 and 18, contain ROH hotspots that overlap with signatures of selection. CONCLUSIONS Patterns of homozygosity (average number of ROH of 77 and genome coverage of 248 Mb; F < 0.15) are similar in goats from different geographic areas. The increased homozygosity in local breeds is the consequence of their small population size and geographic isolation as well as of founder effects and recent inbreeding. The existence of three ROH hotspots that co-localize with signatures of selection demonstrates that selection has also played an important role in increasing the homozygosity of specific regions in the goat genome. Finally, most of the goat breeds analysed in this work display low levels of homozygosity, which is favourable for their genetic management and viability.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH) > Institute of Genetics
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH)

Subjects:

500 Science > 590 Animals (Zoology)
600 Technology > 630 Agriculture

ISSN:

1297-9686

Publisher:

BioMed Central

Language:

English

Submitter:

Cord Drögemüller

Date Deposited:

29 May 2019 12:13

Last Modified:

04 Nov 2019 03:54

Publisher DOI:

10.1186/s12711-018-0424-8

PubMed ID:

30449279

Additional Information:

Cord Drögemüller is a member of the AdaptMap Consortium

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.127322

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/127322

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