Invited review: Metabolic challenges and adaptation during different functional stages of the mammary gland in dairy cows: Perspectives for sustainable milk production.

Gross, Josef Johann; Bruckmaier, Rupert (2019). Invited review: Metabolic challenges and adaptation during different functional stages of the mammary gland in dairy cows: Perspectives for sustainable milk production. Journal of dairy science, 102(4), pp. 2828-2843. American Dairy Science Association 10.3168/jds.2018-15713

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Milk production of dairy cows has increased markedly during recent decades and continues to increase further. The evolutionarily conserved direction of nutrients to the mammary gland immediately after calving provided the basis for successful selective breeding toward higher performance. Considerable variation in adaptive responses toward energy and nutrient shortages exists; however, this variation in adaptability recently gained interest for identifying more metabolically robust dairy cows. Metabolic challenges during periods of high milk production considerably affect the immune system, reproductive performance, and product quality as well as animal welfare. Moreover, growing consumer concerns need to be taken into consideration because the public perception of industrialized dairy cow farming, the high dependency on feed sources suitable for human nutrition, and the apparently abundant use of antibiotics may affect the sales of dairy products. Breeding for high yield continues, but the metabolic challenges increasingly come close to the adaptational limits of meeting the mammary gland's requirements. The aim of the present review is to elucidate metabolic challenges and adaptational limitations at different functional stages of the mammary gland in dairy cows. From the challenges and adaptational limitations, we derive perspectives for sustainable milk production. Based on previous research, we highlight the importance of metabolic plasticity in adaptation mechanisms at different functional stages of the mammary gland. Metabolic adaptation and plasticity change among developing, nonlactating, remodeling, and lactational stages of the mammary gland. A higher metabolic plasticity in early-lactating dairy cows could be indicative of resilience, and a high performance level without an extraordinary occurrence of health disorders can be achieved.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH) > Veterinary Physiology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH)

UniBE Contributor:

Gross, Josef Johann and Bruckmaier, Rupert

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
500 Science > 590 Animals (Zoology)
600 Technology > 630 Agriculture

ISSN:

0022-0302

Publisher:

American Dairy Science Association

Language:

English

Submitter:

Josef Johann Gross

Date Deposited:

31 May 2019 13:19

Last Modified:

25 Oct 2019 01:05

Publisher DOI:

10.3168/jds.2018-15713

PubMed ID:

30799117

Uncontrolled Keywords:

dairy cow mammary gland metabolic adaptation transition period

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.128473

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/128473

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