Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

Duchaud, Eric; Rochat, Tatiana; Habib, Christophe; Barbier, Paul; Loux, Valentin; Guérin, Cyprien; Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone; Nilsen, Hanne; Sundell, Krister; Wiklund, Tom; Strepparava, Nicole; Wahli, Thomas; Caburlotto, Greta; Manfrin, Amedeo; Wiens, Gregory D; Fujiwara-Nagata, Erina; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Bernardet, Jean-François and Nicolas, Pierre (2018). Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, p. 138. Frontiers 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00138

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Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiological agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome and bacterial cold-water disease in salmonid fish, is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide. In this study, the genomic diversity of the species is analyzed using a set of 41 genomes, including 30 newly sequenced isolates. These were selected on the basis of available MLST data with the two-fold objective of maximizing the coverage of the species diversity and of allowing a focus on the main clonal complex (CC-ST10) infecting farmed rainbow trout () worldwide. The results reveal a bacterial species harboring a limited genomic diversity both in terms of nucleotide diversity, with ~0.3% nucleotide divergence inside CDSs in pairwise genome comparisons, and in terms of gene repertoire, with the core genome accounting for ~80% of the genes in each genome. The pan-genome seems nevertheless "open" according to the scaling exponent of a power-law fitted on the rate of new gene discovery when genomes are added one-by-one. Recombination is a key component of the evolutionary process of the species as seen in the high level of apparent homoplasy in the core genome. Using a Hidden Markov Model to delineate recombination tracts in pairs of closely related genomes, the average recombination tract length was estimated to ~4.0 Kbp and the typical ratio of the contributions of recombination and mutations to nucleotide-level differentiation (r/m) was estimated to ~13. Within CC-ST10, evolutionary distances computed on non-recombined regions and comparisons between 22 isolates sampled up to 27 years apart suggest a most recent common ancestor in the second half of the nineteenth century in North America with subsequent diversification and transmission of this clonal complex coinciding with the worldwide expansion of rainbow trout farming. With the goal to promote the development of tools for the genetic manipulation of , a particular attention was also paid to plasmids. Their extraction and sequencing to completion revealed plasmid diversity that remained hidden to classical plasmid profiling due to size similarities.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP)
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Center for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI)

UniBE Contributor:

Strepparava, Nicole and Wahli, Thomas

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology > 630 Agriculture

ISSN:

1664-302X

Publisher:

Frontiers

Language:

English

Submitter:

Achim Braun Parham

Date Deposited:

21 May 2019 12:55

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 12:32

Publisher DOI:

10.3389/fmicb.2018.00138

PubMed ID:

29467746

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Flavobacterium psychrophilum aquaculture clonal-complex comparative genomics fish-pathogenic bacteria homologous recombination

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.129623

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/129623

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