Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and management of cerebral ischemic events in patients on treatment with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants - A systematic review.

Meinel, Thomas Raphael; Frey, Sebastién; Arnold, Marcel; Kendroud, Sarah; Fischer, Urs; Kaesmacher, Johannes; Heldner, Mirjam Rachel; Jung, Simon (2019). Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and management of cerebral ischemic events in patients on treatment with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants - A systematic review. PLoS ONE, 14(3), e0213379. Public Library of Science 10.1371/journal.pone.0213379

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BACKGROUND Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are equally or potentially superior in terms of effectiveness in the prevention of ischemic stroke and carry a lower associated risk of intracranial hemorrhage compared to Vitamin K antagonists. Nevertheless, ischemic strokes also occur in patients who are being treated with NOAC. In those particular patients, knowledge about the underlying stroke etiology, clinical presentation, acute management, and complication rates is scarce. OBJECTIVE Systematic literature review to provide a comprehensive clinical overview in terms of presentation, laboratory, imaging parameters and outcomes of patients suffering from acute cerebral ischemic events (i.e. TIA and acute ischemic stroke) while on treatment with a NOAC. Only if available, comparison to VKA is presented which was not the primary focus of this analysis. DATA SOURCES PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and EMBASE from January 1, 2006, to November 20, 2018. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA 52 studies providing detailed information on a total of 12247 patients were included. We excluded case reports and case series with less than five patients. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHOD We systematically assessed study quality using a bias tool and pooled consistent data. RESULTS Existing data indicates milder stroke severity and smaller infarct size of acute ischemic stroke on treatment with NOAC compared to stroke occurrence on Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). Established risk factors for ischemic events also play a role in stroke while on NOACs, albeit the underlying etiology remains poorly understood. Intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy seem to be safe and effective, but patient selection for recanalization therapies is challenging. LIMITATIONS Limited quality of published data, duplicate cases, statistical issues of data pooling, possible incomplete retrieval of identified research and reporting bias might have limited our findings. CONCLUSIONS Acute ischemic events despite treatment with NOAC therapy are insufficiently investigated. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER PROSPERO: CRD42018074853.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Meinel, Thomas Raphael; Arnold, Marcel; Fischer, Urs; Kaesmacher, Johannes; Heldner, Mirjam Rachel and Jung, Simon

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1932-6203

Publisher:

Public Library of Science

Language:

English

Submitter:

Maria de Fatima Henriques Bernardo

Date Deposited:

25 Jun 2019 11:21

Last Modified:

22 Oct 2019 18:28

Publisher DOI:

10.1371/journal.pone.0213379

PubMed ID:

30925155

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.129901

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/129901

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