Facile Site-Specific Multiconjugation Strategies in Recombinant Proteins Produced in Bacteria.

Merten, Hannes; Schaefer, Jonas V; Brandl, Fabian; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe; Plückthun, Andreas (2019). Facile Site-Specific Multiconjugation Strategies in Recombinant Proteins Produced in Bacteria. Methods in molecular biology, 2033, pp. 253-273. Springer 10.1007/978-1-4939-9654-4_17

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For biomedical applications, proteins may require conjugation to small and large molecules. Typical examples are dyes for imaging, cytotoxic effector molecules for cell killing, or half-life extension modules for optimized pharmacokinetics. Although many conjugation strategies are straightforward to apply, most of them do not enable site-specific and orthogonal conjugation, and do not yield a defined stoichiometry. Moreover, techniques offering these desirable features often rely on complex expression procedures and suffer from low production yields. A more promising manufacturing strategy for flexible, site-specific and stoichiometrically defined payloading of proteins is the combination of click chemistry and thiol-maleimide conjugation, which even enables dual labeling when used consecutively. Here, we describe as an example the production of Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins), a non-IgG binding scaffold, in a specific E. coli strain to obtain high yields of protein carrying both a thiol and an azide group. We provide straightforward protocols for strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) and thiol-maleimide conjugation, and furthermore compare these conjugation chemistries with existing alternatives like copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Finally, detailed instructions for reactivity analysis and yield estimations of the reactions are provided.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Further Contribution)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology

UniBE Contributor:

Brandl, Fabian and Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Celine Joray

Date Deposited:

27 Aug 2019 09:44

Last Modified:

01 Dec 2020 15:51

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Bacterial expression Bioorthogonal Click chemistry CuAAC DARPins PEG stain Polyethylene glycol SPAAC Site-specific conjugation Thiol–maleimide conjugation





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