Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) and the Time Monitoring Behavior-10 scale (TMB-10) in good sleepers and patients with insomnia.

Vochem, Juliana; Strobel, Christine; Maier, Lena; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Riemann, Dieter; Feige, Bernd (2019). Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) and the Time Monitoring Behavior-10 scale (TMB-10) in good sleepers and patients with insomnia. Sleep medicine, 56, pp. 98-103. Elsevier 10.1016/j.sleep.2019.01.022

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OBJECTIVES Pre-sleep arousal and time monitoring behavior are two putative factors involved in the development and maintenance of insomnia. We investigate two questionnaires measuring these factors in good sleepers and patients with insomnia. PARTICIPANTS A sample of 96 patients with non-organic insomnia according to ICD-10 and 208 good sleepers completed the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), the Time Monitoring Behavior-10 scale (TMB-10), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). METHODS In this study, 95% quantile cut-off scores were determined for good sleeper in the age and gender mathed subgroups of the insomnia group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine variables predicting above-threshold values in the two target questionnaires. Included predictors were age, gender as well as ISI, BDI-II, STAI-1 and -2 total scores. RESULTS Good sleepers showed 95% quantiles between 12.2 and 23.8 for PSAS and between 7.5 and 12.7 for TMB-10. Approximately 40% of patients with insomnia had scores above these cut-offs for PSAS and ca. 25% for TMB-10. Female gender and anxiety were variables associated with scores above cut-off on the PSAS. Insomnia severity and anxiety were associated with scores above cut-off on the TMB-10. CONCLUSIONS These findings underline the importance of PSAS and TMB-10 in the diagnostic investigation of insomnia and indicate that time monitoring is related to increased insomnia severity. Further research may investigate the impact of the corresponding two constructs on response rates to cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy > Translational Research Center

UniBE Contributor:

Hertenstein, Elisabeth








Elisabeth Hertenstein

Date Deposited:

28 Aug 2019 15:16

Last Modified:

23 Oct 2019 15:38

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Insomnia Normative values Pre-sleep arousal Subjective good sleepers Time monitoring behavior




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