Dual effects of transformational leadership on teacher efficacy in close and distant leadership situations

Windlinger, Regula; Warwas, Julia; Hostettler, Ueli (2020). Dual effects of transformational leadership on teacher efficacy in close and distant leadership situations. School Leadership and Management, 40(1), pp. 64-87. Carfax International Publishers 10.1080/13632434.2019.1585339

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Although research generally attests to the beneficial role of transformational leadership (TL) for school effectiveness, little empirical work has distinguished individual- from group-focused dimensions of TL and analysed their relationships with target variables at the individual and group level of followers simultaneously. Using a dual effects model of TL, the present study aims to fill this gap. It examines the dimensional structure of principals’ TL behaviours and their prognostic value for teachers’ self- and group-referential efficacy beliefs. Additionally, contextual dependencies of leadership effects are considered through the moderating role of a principal's span of control. Based on questionnaire data of 1,702 teachers in 118 Swiss schools, doubly latent ML-SEMs specify moderated dual effects of TL on both teacher and school levels of analysis. Results convey empirically separable latent sub-dimensions of TL (individual-/group-focused), which (a) characterise systematic differences in the leadership behaviours of the investigated principals and (b) substantially predict variations in the mean-levels of both teacher and collective efficacy between their respective schools. TL-collective efficacy relations are stronger in close leadership situations (low span of control) than in distant ones.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


06 Faculty of Humanities > Other Institutions > Teaching Staff, Faculty of Humanities

UniBE Contributor:

Hostettler, Ueli


300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 370 Education




Carfax International Publishers




Ulrich Hostettler-Macias

Date Deposited:

04 Nov 2019 08:53

Last Modified:

20 Jan 2020 08:28

Publisher DOI:






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