The Morphology of the Infraorbital Nerve and Foramen in the Presence of an Accessory Infraorbital Foramen.

Polo, Carolina L; Abdelkarim, Ahmed Z; von Arx, Thomas; Lozanoff, Scott (2019). The Morphology of the Infraorbital Nerve and Foramen in the Presence of an Accessory Infraorbital Foramen. Journal of craniofacial surgery, 30(1), pp. 244-253. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004889

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The accessory infraorbital foramen (AIOF) is an anatomical variation associated with the infraorbital foramen (IOF) and nerve (ION). Its occurrence and neural contents have clinical implications regarding failure of loco-regional anesthesia and risk of neural damage during surgical interventions involving the maxillary region. Thus, morphologic characterization of the AIOF and neural contents as well as the spatial relationships to the IOF are potentially useful for optimizing surgical procedures. Additionally, predictive features of the AIOF based on its relationship to IOF morphology could enable the surgeon to anticipate its presence and proceed accordingly. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of an AIOF and its neural contents affected the size, shape, and composition of the IOF and ION. The specific hypothesis tested was that the topography and fascicular composition of the ION and IOF differs between individuals possessing an AIOF and those lacking this anatomical variant.


Gross topographic features of the IOF (42 crania) were compared between specimens possessing (test) or lacking (control) an AIOF. Nerve fascicles of ION (60 cadaveric sides) were examined histologically and compared morphometrically between specimens presenting or lacking an AIOF. An additional sample of 30 crania was subjected to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis to determine the course of the canal leading to the AIOF.


The AIOF incidence was 47.6% (20 crania) and 32.1% of the sides (27 sides). A single AIOF was observed in 24 sides and double AIOF in three sides. The AIOF occurred bilaterally in 7 specimens (16.7%). The majority of AIOF (86.7%) were located superomedial to IOF. A slightly higher frequency of the AIOF was found in left side compared to the right. Using CBCT, a patient sample showed an AIOF incidence in 21 sides of 16 patients (65.6%). A single AIOF was observed in 19 sides. Only 1 double AIOF was found in the scans, whereas 3 were found in the dry skull group. The AIOF occurred bilaterally in 3 scans (10%). The majority of AIOF (90.4%) were located superomedial to the IOF based on the CBCT scans. The AIOF was consistently seen connected to the infraorbital canal and progressed superiorly and medially from the infraorbital canal to the maxillary surface. The size of the ION without an AIOF was not significantly different than the ION in the presence of an AIOF (1.45 × 10/1.32 × 10 μm, P < 0.35) based on fascicular area. However, the number of ION fascicles was greater in specimens without an AIOF compared to those showing this feature (15.15/12.71, P < 0.04) CONCLUSION:: Results indicate that the area of the ION is not affected by an AIOF, suggesting that the field of innervation of this area is not modified by its occurrence. However, the ION appears to divide more proximally into its component branches when the AIOF is present.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology

UniBE Contributor:

von Arx, Thomas


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Lippincott Williams & Wilkins




Caroline Balz

Date Deposited:

11 Nov 2019 13:52

Last Modified:

11 Nov 2019 14:01

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





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