Non-cardioembolic stroke/transient ischaemic attack in Asians and non-Asians: A post-hoc analysis of the PERFORM study.

Hoshino, Takao; Sissani, Leila; Labreuche, Julien; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Chamorro, Angel; Fisher, Marc; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Hennerici, Michael G; Mattle, Heinrich; Rothwell, Peter M; Gabriel Steg, Philippe; Vicaut, Eric; Amarenco, Pierre (2019). Non-cardioembolic stroke/transient ischaemic attack in Asians and non-Asians: A post-hoc analysis of the PERFORM study. European stroke journal, 4(1), pp. 65-74. Sage 10.1177/2396987318797245

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We aimed to compare the characteristics and vascular outcomes between Asian and non-Asian patients with non-cardioembolic stroke/transient ischaemic attack receiving antiplatelet monotherapy and to identify population-specific predictors for recurrent events.

Patients and methods

We conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from the PERFORM study, in which 19,100 patients (mean age, 67.2 years; male, 63%; 2178 Asian and 16,922 non-Asian patients) with non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke/transient ischaemic attack were randomised to aspirin or terutroban and followed for two years. The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and cardiovascular death).


There was no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events risk between Asian and non-Asian populations (11.1% vs. 10.5%; p = 0.39). However, Asian patients were at significantly higher risk of intracranial haemorrhage (2.4% vs. 1.3%; hazard ratio (HR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-2.60; p < 0.001) and major bleeding (5.4% vs. 4.1%; HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04-1.61; p = 0.02). Stroke risk was significantly higher in Asian than in non-Asian populations among patients with lacunar stroke (7.4% vs. 4.5%; p = 0.02). In multivariable analysis, diastolic blood pressure (HR per 5 mm Hg 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16; p = 0.03) and diabetes (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.22-1.52; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events for Asian and non-Asian patients, respectively.Conclusion: Compared with non-Asian patients, Asian patients had significantly higher risk of haemorrhagic events when given antiplatelet monotherapy for secondary prevention after non-cardioembolic stroke/transient ischaemic attack. Lacunar stroke and elevated diastolic blood pressure were more associated with recurrence risk in Asian patients.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology

UniBE Contributor:

Mattle, Heinrich


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Chantal Kottler

Date Deposited:

14 Nov 2019 09:13

Last Modified:

14 Nov 2019 09:20

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Antiplatelet bleeding cerebrovascular disease intracranial haemorrhage race and ethnicity




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