Meta-analysis of haematoma volume, haematoma expansion and mortality in intracerebral haemorrhage associated with oral anticoagulant use.

Seiffge, David J.; Goeldlin, Martina B.; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lyrer, Philippe; Fischer, Urs; Engelter, Stefan T; Werring, David J (2019). Meta-analysis of haematoma volume, haematoma expansion and mortality in intracerebral haemorrhage associated with oral anticoagulant use. Journal of neurology, 266(12), pp. 3126-3135. Springer-Medizin-Verlag 10.1007/s00415-019-09536-1

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To obtain precise estimates of age, haematoma volume, secondary haematoma expansion (HE) and mortality for patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) taking oral anticoagulants [Vitamin K antagonists (VKA-ICH) or non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC-ICH)] and those not taking oral anticoagulants (non-OAC ICH) at ICH symptom onset.


We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing VKA-ICH or NOAC-ICH or both with non-OAC ICH. Primary outcomes were haematoma volume (in ml), HE, and mortality (in-hospital and 3-month). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) and determined the mean ICH volume difference.


We identified 19 studies including data from 16,546 patients with VKA-ICH and 128,561 patients with non-OAC ICH. Only 2 studies reported data on 4943 patients with NOAC-ICH. Patients with VKA-ICH were significantly older than patients with non-OAC ICH (mean age difference: 5.55 years, 95%CI 4.03-7.07, p < 0.0001, I2 = 92%, p < 0.001). Haematoma volume was significantly larger in VKA-ICH with a mean difference of 9.66 ml (95%CI 6.24-13.07 ml, p < 0.00001; I2 = 42%, p = 0.05). HE occurred significantly more often in VKA-ICH (OR 2.96, 95%CI 1.74-4.97, p < 0.00001; I2 = 65%). VKA-ICH was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality (VKA-ICH: 32.8% vs. non-OAC ICH: 22.4%; OR 1.83, 95%CI 1.61-2.07, p < 0.00001, I2 = 20%, p = 0.27) and 3-month mortality (VKA-ICH: 47.1% vs. non-OAC ICH: 25.5%; OR 2.24, 95%CI 1.52-3.31, p < 0.00001, I2 = 71%, p = 0.001). We did not find sufficient data for a meta-analysis comparing NOAC-ICH and non-OAC-ICH.


This meta-analysis confirms, refines and expands findings from prior studies. We provide precise estimates of key prognostic factors and outcomes for VKA-ICH, which has larger haematoma volume, increased rate of HE and higher mortality compared to non-OAC ICH. There are insufficient data on NOACs.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Health Sciences (GHS)

UniBE Contributor:

Seiffge, David Julian, Göldlin, Martina Béatrice, Fischer, Urs Martin


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Chantal Kottler

Date Deposited:

20 Nov 2019 16:47

Last Modified:

02 Mar 2023 23:32

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Haematoma expansion Haematoma volume Intracerebral haemorrhage Mortality Oral anticoagulants




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