Interleukin-6 is an efficacious marker of axonal transport disruption during experimental glaucoma and stimulates neuritogenesis in cultured retinal ganglion cells

Chidlow, Glyn; Wood, John P M; Ebneter, Andreas; Casson, Robert J (2012). Interleukin-6 is an efficacious marker of axonal transport disruption during experimental glaucoma and stimulates neuritogenesis in cultured retinal ganglion cells. Neurobiology of disease, 48(3), pp. 568-81. Amsterdam: Elsevier 10.1016/j.nbd.2012.07.026

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It is increasingly recognised that chronically activated glia contribute to the pathology of various neurodegenerative diseases, including glaucoma. One means by which this can occur is through the release of neurotoxic, proinflammatory factors. In the current study, we therefore investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of expression of three such cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6, in a validated rat model of experimental glaucoma. First, only weak evidence was found for increased expression of IL-1β and TNFα following induction of ocular hypertension. Second, and much more striking, was that robust evidence was uncovered showing IL-6 to be synthesised by injured retinal ganglion cells following elevation of intraocular pressure and transported in an orthograde fashion along the nerve, accumulating at sites of axonal disruption in the optic nerve head. Verification that IL-6 represents a novel marker of disrupted axonal transport in this model was obtained by performing double labelling immunofluorescence with recognised markers of fast axonal transport. The stimulus for IL-6 synthesis and axonal transport during experimental glaucoma arose from axonal injury rather than ocular hypertension, as the response was identical after optic nerve crush and bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries, each of which is independent of elevated intraocular pressure. Moreover, the response of IL-6 was not a generalised feature of the gp130 family of cytokines, as it was not mimicked by another family member, ciliary neurotrophic factor. Finally, further study suggested that IL-6 may be an early part of the endogenous regenerative response as the cytokine colocalised with growth-associated membrane phosphoprotein-43 in some putative regenerating axons, and potently stimulated neuritogenesis in retinal ganglion cells in culture, an effect that was additive to that of ciliary neurotrophic factor. These data comprise clear evidence that IL-6 is actively involved in the attempt of injured retinal ganglion cells to regenerate their axons.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Ophthalmology

UniBE Contributor:

Ebneter, Andreas

ISSN:

0969-9961

Publisher:

Elsevier

Language:

English

Submitter:

Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:34

Last Modified:

17 Mar 2015 21:23

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/j.nbd.2012.07.026

PubMed ID:

22884876

Web of Science ID:

000309694000033

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/13690 (FactScience: 220287)

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