Effect of fluvoxamine augmentation and smoking on clozapine serum concentrations

Augustin, Marc; Schoretsanitis, Georgios; Pfeifer, Philippe; Gründer, Gerhard; Liebe, Claus; Paulzen, Michael (2019). Effect of fluvoxamine augmentation and smoking on clozapine serum concentrations. Schizophrenia Research, 210, pp. 143-148. Elsevier 10.1016/j.schres.2019.05.033

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Background: Clozapine (CLZ) is metabolized via cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 to N-desmethylclozapine (NCLZ). Smoking induces CYP1A2 thereby increasing clozapine metabolismwhereas fluvoxamine inhibits CYP1A2. Studies suggest that the beneficial effect of fluvoxamine augmentation in raising serumclozapine concentrations also occurs when serum concentrations are low due to smoking. Yet, little is known about the influence of fluvoxamine augmentation on clozapine serum concentrations in smoking versus non-smoking patients. Methods: A TDMdatabasewas analyzed. Serumconcentrations of CLZ,NCLZ, dose-adjusted serumconcentrations (C/D) and metabolite-to-parent ratios (MPR) were compared using non-parametrical tests in four groups: clozapine-monotherapy in non-smokers (VNS, n=28) and smokers (VS, n=43); combined treatment with clozapine and fluvoxamine in non-smokers (VNS+F, n = 11) and smokers (VS+F, n = 43). Results:The CLZ monotherapy smoking group showed lower values of C/D CLZ of −38.6% (p < 0.001), C/D NCLZ −35.6% (p < 0.001) and a higher MPR (p = 0.021) than in the non-smoking group. The combination of CLZ and fluvoxamine in non-smoking patients led to higher C/D values: C/D CLZ +117.9% (p < 0.001), C/D NCLZ +60.8% (p = 0.029) while the MPR did not differ between groups (p = 0.089). Changes were comparable to fluvoxamine augmentation in the smoking group with increased C/D CLZ of +120.1% (p < 0.001), C/D NCLZ of +85.8% (p < 0.001) and lower MPR (p = 0.006). Conclusions: Smoking in clozapine monotherapy reduced median dose-adjusted serum concentrations more than a third. Combined treatment with fluvoxamine and clozapine led to higher median C/D values in both, smokers and non-smokers. The opposing effects of CYP1A2 induction by smoking and inhibition by fluvoxamine on clozapine serum concentrations balanced out.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy > Translational Research Center
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy

UniBE Contributor:

Schoretsanitis, Georgios and Pfeifer, Philippe

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0920-9964

Publisher:

Elsevier

Language:

English

Submitter:

Philippe Pfeifer

Date Deposited:

14 Jan 2020 13:14

Last Modified:

14 Jan 2020 13:22

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/j.schres.2019.05.033

PubMed ID:

31182321

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.137219

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/137219

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