Vegetarian or gluten-free diets in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are associated with lower psychological well-being and a different gut microbiota, but no beneficial effects on the course of the disease.

Schreiner, Philipp; Yilmaz, Bahtiyar; Rossel, Jean-Benoît; Franc, Yannick; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Scharl, Michael; Zeitz, Jonas; Frei, Pascal; Greuter, Thomas; Vavricka, Stephan R; Pittet, Valérie; Siebenhüner, Alexander; Juillerat, Pascal; von Känel, Roland; Macpherson, Andrew J; Rogler, Gerhard; Biedermann, Luc (2019). Vegetarian or gluten-free diets in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are associated with lower psychological well-being and a different gut microbiota, but no beneficial effects on the course of the disease. United european gastroenterology journal, 7(6), pp. 767-781. Sage 10.1177/2050640619841249

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Background

Many inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients follow a restrictive diet due to perceived positive effects on their symptoms. We assessed the prevalence of vegetarian (VD) and gluten-free diets (GFDs) in IBD patients, the reasons for following such a diet, and whether nutrition has an impact on disease activity and microbiota composition.

Methods

We included 1254 patients from the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study with prospective acquisition of clinical data and psychosocial, disease-related and lifestyle factors between 2006 and 2015. Dietary habits were assessed through a self-report questionnaire. In 92 patients, we analysed intestinal mucosa-associated microbial composition using high-throughput sequencing.

Results

Overall, 4.1% (n = 52) of the patients reported following a VD and 4.7% (n = 54) a GFD. No differences regarding disease activity, fistula, hospitalization or surgery rates were observed. Patients on a VD or GFD had significantly higher levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, GFD patients had significantly higher anxiety and depression symptom levels. The gut microbiota composition in IBD patients following a VD or GFD was significantly different compared to that of omnivores.

Conclusions

Although we did not identify a relevant impact of a specific diet on the course of the disease, there was a significant association with lower psychological well-being in VD and GFD patients.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gastro-intestinal, Liver and Lung Disorders (DMLL) > Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine > Gastroenterology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > DBMR Forschung Mu35 > Forschungsgruppe Gastroenterologie / Mukosale Immunologie
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > DBMR Forschung Mu35 > Forschungsgruppe Gastroenterologie / Mukosale Immunologie

UniBE Contributor:

Yilmaz, Bahtiyar; Juillerat, Pascal and Macpherson, Andrew

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

2050-6406

Publisher:

Sage

Language:

English

Submitter:

Thi Thao Anh Pham

Date Deposited:

30 Jan 2020 07:43

Last Modified:

30 Jan 2020 07:43

Publisher DOI:

10.1177/2050640619841249

PubMed ID:

31316781

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Crohn's disease gluten-free inflammatory bowel disease nutrition ulcerative colitis vegetarian

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.138147

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/138147

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