Monitoring caffeine intake in children with a questionnaire and urine collection: a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample in Switzerland.

Rios-Leyvraz, Magali; Bochud, Murielle; Tabin, René; Genin, Bernard; Russo, Michel; Rossier, Michel F; Eap, Chin B; Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud (2020). Monitoring caffeine intake in children with a questionnaire and urine collection: a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample in Switzerland. (In Press). European Journal of Nutrition Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s00394-020-02187-3

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PURPOSE The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate caffeine intake and identify the main sources of intake using a dietary questionnaire, (2) to assess 24-h urinary excretion of caffeine and its metabolites, and (3) to assess how self-reported intake estimates correlates with urinary excretion among children in Switzerland. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of children between 6 and 16 years of age in one region of Switzerland. The participants filled in a dietary questionnaire and collected a 24-h urine sample. Caffeine intake was estimated with the questionnaire. Caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in the urine sample. Correlations between questionnaire-based intake and urinary excretion estimates were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. RESULTS Ninety-one children were included in the analysis (mean age 10.6 years; 43% female). The mean daily caffeine intake estimate derived from the diet questionnaire was 39 mg (range 0-237), corresponding, when related to body weight, to 1.2 mg/kg (range 0.0-6.3). Seven children (8%) had a caffeine intake above the upper recommended level of 3 mg/kg per day. The main sources of caffeine intake were cocoa milk (29%), chocolate (25%), soft drinks (11%), mocha yogurt (10%), tea (8%), and energy drinks (8%). The 24-h urinary excretion of caffeine was 0.3 mg (range 0.0-1.5), paraxanthine 1.4 mg (range 0.0-7.1), theophylline 0.1 mg (range 0.0-0.6), and theobromine 14.8 mg (range 0.3-59.9). The correlations between estimates of caffeine intake and the 24-h urinary excretion of caffeine was modest (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.046) and with the metabolites of caffeine were weak (ρ = 0.09-0.11, p = 0.288-0.423). CONCLUSIONS Caffeine intake in a sample of children in a region of Switzerland was relatively low. The major sources of intake were cocoa milk, chocolate and soft drinks. Self-reported caffeine intake correlated weakly with urinary excretion of caffeine and some of its main metabolites. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT02900261.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Medical Education > Institute of General Practice and Primary Care (BIHAM)

UniBE Contributor:

Chiolero, Arnaud

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services

ISSN:

1436-6207

Publisher:

Springer-Verlag

Language:

English

Submitter:

Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

13 Feb 2020 15:36

Last Modified:

02 Apr 2020 13:52

Publisher DOI:

10.1007/s00394-020-02187-3

PubMed ID:

32016643

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Adolescents Caffeine Children Coffee Dietary questionnaire Switzerland Urinary excretion

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.140239

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/140239

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