Does Preoperative Decolonization Reduce Surgical Site Infections in Elective Orthopaedic Surgery? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

Rohrer, Felix; Nötzli, Hubert; Risch, Lorenz; Bodmer, Thomas; Cottagnoud, Philippe; Hermann, Tanja; Limacher, Andreas; Fankhauser, Niklaus; Wagner, Karoline; Brügger, Jan (2020). Does Preoperative Decolonization Reduce Surgical Site Infections in Elective Orthopaedic Surgery? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 478(8), pp. 1790-1800. Wolters Kluwer 10.1097/CORR.0000000000001152

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BACKGROUND

Surgical site infections (SSIs) after elective orthopaedic surgery are very stressful for patients due to frequent rehospitalizations with reoperations and poorer functional outcomes. Prevention of such events is therefore crucial. Although an evidence-based consensus is still lacking, preoperative decolonization could decrease SSI. Specifically, more information is needed about the effect of a preoperative decolonization procedure on SSI proportions in both Staphylococcus aureus carriers and non-S. aureus carriers after general orthopaedic surgery.

QUESTIONS/PURPOSES

Our study addressed the following questions: (1) Does preoperative decolonization reduce the risk of SSI after general elective orthopaedic surgery in patients colonized with S. aureus? (2) Does preoperative decolonization reduce the risk of SSI among patients who are not colonized with S. aureus?

METHODS

In this prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial, we recruited patients undergoing general elective orthopaedic surgery in one tertiary care center in Switzerland. Between November 2014 and September 2017, 1318 of 1897 screened patients were enrolled. Patients were allocated into either the S. aureus carrier group (35%, 465 of 1318 patients) or the non-carrier group (65%, 853 of 1318 patients) according to screening culture results. In the S. aureus group, 232 patients were allocated to the intervention arm and 233 were allocated to the control arm. Intervention was 5 days of daily chlorhexidine showers and mupirocin nasal ointment twice a day. Of the 853 non-carriers, 426 were allocated to the intervention arm and 427 were allocated to the control arm. All patients in both groups were analyzed in an intention-to-treat manner. The primary endpoint was SSI occurrence at 90 days postoperative and the secondary endpoint was SSI occurrence at 30 days postoperative.The initial sample size calculation was made for the S. aureus carrier group. Based on the literature review, a 4% proportion of SSI was expected in the control group. Thus, 726 carriers would have been needed to detect a relative risk reduction of 80% with a power of 80% at a two-sided α-error of 0.048 (adjusted for interim analysis). Assuming carrier prevalence of 27%, 2690 patients would have been needed in total. An interim analysis was performed after including half of the targeted S. aureus carriers (363 of 726). Based on the low infection rate in the control group (one of 179), a new sample size of 15,000 patients would have been needed. This was deemed not feasible and the trial was stopped prematurely.

RESULTS

Among carriers, there was no difference in the risk of SSI between the intervention and control arms (decolonized SSI risk: 0.4% [one of 232], control SSI risk: 0.4% [one of 233], risk difference: 0.0% [95% CI -1.2% to 1.2%], stratified for randomization stratification factors; p > 0.999). For non-carriers, there was no difference in risk between the intervention and control arms (decolonized SSI risk: 0.2% [one of 426], control SSI risk: 0.2% [one of 247], stratified risk difference: -0.0% [95% CI -0.7 to 0.6]; p = 0.973).

CONCLUSIONS

We found no difference in the risk of SSI between the decolonization and control groups, both in S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Because of the low event numbers, no definite conclusion about efficacy of routine preoperative decolonization can be drawn. The results, however, may be helpful in future meta-analyses.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

Level II, therapeutic study.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > CTU Bern

UniBE Contributor:

Limacher, Andreas and Fankhauser, Niklaus

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services

ISSN:

1528-1132

Publisher:

Wolters Kluwer

Language:

English

Submitter:

Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

25 Feb 2020 12:29

Last Modified:

13 Aug 2020 15:04

Publisher DOI:

10.1097/CORR.0000000000001152

PubMed ID:

32058435

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.140682

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/140682

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