The History of Fatherhood during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Hallama, Peter Christian (2019). The History of Fatherhood during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Encyclopédie pour une histoire nouvelle de l'Europe

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The major transformation of fatherhood in Europe during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was from the all-powerful pater familias to the “new father” involved with his children. In the name of the child’s interest, the state began to compete with fathers and to weaken their position. The separation of the workplace and place of residence resulting from industrialization, as well as the emergence of a romantic vision of maternity, contributed to distancing fathers from the family sphere. It took until the 1960s and 1970s for a new type of father to appear, in a context marked by the feminist movement and the decline of the “military-virile” model. Fatherhood was reevaluated from the perspective of equality, as demonstrated by the replacement of paternal authority by parental authority, and the introduction of paternity leave. Finally, developments such as gay fatherhood and single fathers show that the multiplication of family forms also affects fathers.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


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06 Faculty of Humanities > Department of History and Archaeology > Institute of History

UniBE Contributor:

Hallama, Peter Christian


900 History






Peter Christian Hallama

Date Deposited:

09 Mar 2020 08:57

Last Modified:

09 Mar 2020 08:57


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