Body condition and insulin resistance interactions with periparturient gene expression in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism in dairy cows.

Karis, P; Jaakson, H; Ling, K; Bruckmaier, R. M.; Gross, J. J.; Pärn, P; Kaart, T; Ots, M (2020). Body condition and insulin resistance interactions with periparturient gene expression in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism in dairy cows. Journal of dairy science, 103(4), pp. 3708-3718. American Dairy Science Association 10.3168/jds.2019-17373

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Adipose tissue plays an important role in a cow's ability to adapt to the metabolic demands of lactation, because of its central involvement in energy metabolism and immunity. High adiposity and adipose tissue resistance to insulin are associated with excessive lipid mobilization. We hypothesized that the response to a glucose challenge differs between cows of different body condition 21 d before and after calving and that the responses are explainable by gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). In addition, we aimed to investigate insulin resistance with gene expression in SAT and lipid mobilization around parturition. Multiparous Holstein cows were grouped according to body conditions score (BCS) 4 wk before calving, as follows: BCS ≤ 3.0 = thin (T, n = 14); BCS 3.25 to 3.5 = optimal (O, n = 14); BCS ≥ 3.75 = over-conditioned (OC, n = 14). We collected SAT on d -21 and d 21 relative to calving. A reverse-transcriptase quantitative (RT-q)PCR was used to measure gene expression related to lipid metabolism. One hour after the collection of adipose tissue, an intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out, with administration of 0.15 g of glucose per kg of body weight (with a 40% glucose solution). Once weekly from the first week before calving to the third week after calving, a blood sample was taken. The transition to lactation was associated with intensified release of energy stored in adipose tissue, a decrease in the lipogenic genes lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), and an increase in the lipolytic gene hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE). On d -21, compared with T cows, OC cows had lower mRNA abundance of LPL and DGAT2, and the latency of fatty acid response after glucose infusion was also longer (8.5 vs. 23.3 min) in OC cows. Cows with higher insulin area under the curve on d -21 had concurrently lower LPL and DGAT2 gene expression and greater concentration of fatty acids on d -7, d 7, and d 14. In conclusion, high adiposity prepartum lowers the whole-body lipid metabolism response to insulin and causes reduced expression of lipogenic genes in SAT 3 weeks before calving. In addition, more pronounced insulin release after glucose infusion on d -21 is related to higher lipid mobilization around calving, indicating an insulin-resistant state, and is associated with lower expression of lipogenic genes in SAT.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH) > Veterinary Physiology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH)

UniBE Contributor:

Bruckmaier, Rupert and Gross, Josef Johann

Subjects:

500 Science > 590 Animals (Zoology)
600 Technology > 630 Agriculture

ISSN:

0022-0302

Publisher:

American Dairy Science Association

Language:

English

Submitter:

Josef Johann Gross

Date Deposited:

31 Mar 2020 12:02

Last Modified:

31 Mar 2020 15:24

Publisher DOI:

10.3168/jds.2019-17373

PubMed ID:

32008773

Uncontrolled Keywords:

adipose tissue metabolism body condition score dairy cow insulin resistance

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.142025

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/142025

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